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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年01月第28卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)01-0138-12
 
党政统筹下的三权分工:当代中国的国家治理结构及其调适
 
张国军1,程同顺2
 
(1. 西南政法大学政治与公共管理学院、中国社会稳定与危机管理研究中心,重庆,401120;
2. 南开大学周恩来政府管理学院,天津,300071)
 
摘  要: 新一轮党和国家机构改革重塑了党政关系,继而引起政治权力和国家治理结构的变革。既有研究提出了党政融合和党政分工框架,前者过于笼统,后者则在操作层面存在职能分开的困境。中国的现代国家建构有其独特的历史和逻辑:公共权力主体已从国家拓展至政党。有必要把党政关系与三权关系贯通考察,以摆脱党政职能分合以及将三权关系局限于国家权力范畴的思维惯性。党政大部制改革从党政职能调整跃至机构设置层面,实现了机构、职能与人事的全面统筹,并通过对公共权力进行功能性分权形成三权分工体制,这迥异于西方通过结构性分权形成的三权分立制衡体制。党政统筹下的三权分工是理顺党政关系和完善国家治理结构的重要举措,由于公共权力的实践场域从政权扩展至政党,还需在党政体制中继续探索权力运行的一般规律,以实现输入和输出端的平衡。
 
关键词: 机构改革;党政关系;国家治理结构;党政统筹;三权分工
 
 
Division and cooperation of three powers under Party-government overall planning: The national governance structure and its adjustment in contemporary China
 
ZHANG Guojun, CHEGN Tongshun
 
(1. School of Politics and Public Administration, Social Stability and Crisis Management Research Center China, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing 401120, China;
2. Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China)
 
Abstract: A new round of CPC and state institutional reform has reshaped the Party-government relations, and then evokes reform of political power and national governance structure. Existing studies have proposed some frameworks such as Party-government integration and Party-government division and cooperation, but the former is not clear enough, and the latter is difficult to implement in which there exists the dilemma that functions are separated. China’s modern state construction has its unique history and logic, and the subjects with public power have been extended from the state to the Party. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate and investigate the Party-government relations with those among three powers so as to get out of the dilemma between Party-government functional integration and separation as well as out of the conventional thinking that relations among three powers exist only in the category of state power. The focus of this Party-government super ministry reform changed from Party-government functional adjustment to organization establishment, hence accomplishing organizational, functional and the personnel overall planning. This reform also developed a system of division and cooperation by functional separation of public power, which is different from the western system of checks and balances based on structural separation. The functional separation reform of three powers under Party-government overall planning is an important strategy in straightening the Party-government relations and improving the national governance structure. As the practice field of public power has extended from the state to the Party, it’s necessary to further explore the general law of power in the Party-government system to balance the input and the output of the system.
 
Key words: institutional reform; Party-government relations; national governance structure; Party- government overall planning; division and cooperation of three powers
 
 
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