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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年01月第28卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)01-0127-11
 
马克思恩格斯对“工农对立论”的批判与超越
 
赵睿夫,郇庆治
 
(北京大学马克思主义学院,北京,100871)
 
摘  要: 19世纪中后叶,以赫尔岑、巴枯宁、特卡乔夫等为代表的“工农对立论”者将农民视作天生的社会革命主体,夸大俄国村社制度的优越性,宣扬工人阶级不可靠论,主张放弃武装斗争而寻求所谓的“本能解放”,妄图破坏工农关系、分化革命力量。马克思与恩格斯从科学社会主义的理论视角出发,深刻批判了“工农对立论”:以经验事实批判其论据虚构,以唯物史观批判其唯心史观,以积极革命观批判其消极革命观。通过对资本主义社会中工农关系的具体分析,马克思与恩格斯明确了工人引导农民、工农联合互助的社会主义革命与建设策略,以“工农联盟论”完成了对“工农对立论”的超越。在今天,重温马克思与恩格斯对“工农对立论”的批判与超越,对于深入理解马克思主义经典文本与思想、正确认识社会阶层关系与共同体治理问题、坚决维护以习近平同志为核心的党中央权威具有重要的现实意义。
 
关键词: “工农对立论”;“工农联盟论”;科学社会主义;俄国革命;民粹主义
 
 
Marx and Engels' criticism and transcendence of the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance”
 
ZHAO Ruifu, HUAN Qingzhi
 
(School of Marxism, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
 
Abstract: In the middle and late 19th century, those for the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance” represented by Herzen, Bakunin, Tkachev and others advocated that peasants were natural subjects of social revolution, exaggerated the superiority of the Russian village community system, publicized the unreliability of the working class, suggested giving up armed struggle to seek the so-called "instinctive liberation", and attempted to destroy the relationship between workers and peasants and to divide the revolutionary powers. Starting from the theoretical perspective of Scientific Socialism, Marx and Engels profoundly criticized the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance”, criticizing its argument fiction with empirical facts, its idealistic view of history with Historical Materialism, and its negative view of revolution with positive view of revolution. Through specific analysis of the relationship between workers and peasants in capitalist society, Marx and Engels clarified the strategy for the socialist revolution and construction, the strategy that workers guide peasants, and workers and peasants collaborate and help each other, hence fulfilling the transcendence of the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance”. Now, reviewing Marx and Engles’ criticism and transcendence of the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance” is of great practical significance for a deeper understanding of Marxist classical texts and thoughts, for a correct knowledge of social-class relation and community-governance issue, and for the strict upholding of CPCC authority with President Xi as the core.
 
Key words: the theory of “Opposing the Worker-Peasant Alliance”; the Worker-Peasant Alliance; Scientific Socialism; Russian revolution; populism
 
 
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