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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年11月第27卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)06-0070-13
 
一般保证责任诉讼形态的类型化释评——兼论《民诉法解释》第66条及《民法典担保解释》第26条
 
蔡虹,王瑞祺
 
(中南财经政法大学法学院,湖北武汉,430073)
 
摘  要: 基于一般保证责任的制度规范与实践现状,可将其诉讼形态分为仅诉一般保证人、同时起诉债务人和一般保证人、仅诉债务人而一般保证人为无独立请求权第三人等三类。债权人仅诉一般保证人时,《民诉法解释》第66条规定人民法院应当依职权追加债务人为共同被告。该做法在实体上有违抗辩权应由权利人主张的原理,在程序上也与必要共同诉讼的结构相悖,应以法官释明追加债务人予以替代。债权人同时起诉债务人和一般保证人时,因保证责任承担的前提性事实发生于基准时之后,因此判决对保证债务关系的判断不具消极既判力和执行力,针对债权人的求偿,保证人可以提起新诉而不属重复起诉。债权人仅诉债务人时,一般保证人可以作为无独立请求权第三人参加诉讼,根据保证人承担责任与否,判决对保证人发生不同的既判力效果。
 
关键词: 一般保证责任;诉讼形态;《民诉法解释》第66条;《民法典担保解释》第26条
 
 
The type interpretation of the general guarantee liability litigation form: Also on Article 66 of The Interpretation of Civil Procedure Law and Article 26 of The Interpretation of Civil Code Guarantee
 
CAI Hong, WANG Ruiqi
 
(School of Law, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China)
 
Abstract: Based on the institutional regulation and practice status of general guarantee liability, the litigation form can be divided into three categories: suing only the general guarantor, suing both the debtor and the general guarantor, and suing only the debtor and the general guarantor as the third party without independent claim. When the creditor only sues the general guarantor, Article 66 of The Interpretation of the Civil Procedure Law states that the people's court shall add the debtor as a co-defendant ex officio, which is against the principle that the right of defense should be claimed by the right holder, and is also against the structure of the necessary common lawsuit, and should be replaced by the judge's explanation of adding the debtor. When the creditor sues the debtor and the general guarantor at the same time, because the prerequisite facts of the guarantee liability occur after the reference time, so the judgment on the guarantee debt relationship does not have negative res judicata and enforceability, and the guarantor can sue for the creditor's claim, but not repeatedly. When the creditor only sues the debtor, the general guarantor can participate in the lawsuit as a third party without independent claim, and according to the guarantor's responsibility or not, the judgment has different res judicata effect on the guarantor.
 
Key words: general guarantee liability; litigation form; Article 66 of The Civil Procedure Law Interpretation; Article 26 of The Civil Code Guarantee Interpretation
 
 
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