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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年09月第27卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)05-0053-12
 
负有照护职责人员性侵罪的解释视角与规制边界
 
陈家林,吕静
 
(武汉大学法学院,湖北武汉,430072)
 
摘  要: 负有照护职责人员性侵罪的增设,有助于填补实务中特定未成年女性未陷入“明显难以反抗”境地时遭受性侵害的处罚漏洞。对性侵害的传统理解立足“性同意”单一视角,未能把握未成年人性被害与成年人性被害之间的差异。在不对未成年人意愿做法律上的重要评价的情况下,应从行为人与被害人之间不平等的权力关系出发,将解释视角转向“性的优劣地位”。“特殊职责”的理解不以“职务”存在为必要,只有落脚于行为人对未成年人的“责任”,才能将规制效果坐实。非穷尽式列举的立法设计有利于应对灵活多变的社会现实,但应保持克制,避免滥用兜底规定将不具有优势地位的责任样态纳入刑法范畴。行为人满足条文列举的“特殊职责”便天然处于优势地位,但确实没有利用优势地位形成的影响力与未成年人发生性关系的,仍存在出罪空间。
 
关键词: 负有照护职责人员性侵罪;性的优劣地位;特殊职责;影响力;出罪空间
 
 
The interpretation perspective and regulatory boundary of the crime of sexual assault by special duties
 
CHEN Jialin, LV Jing
 
(School of Law, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)
 
Abstract: The addition of the crime of sexual assault by special duties helps to fill the penalty loopholes in the practice in which under-age females (minors) who do not fall in the situation of being "obviously difficult to resist". The traditional understanding of sexual assault is based on the single perspective of "sexual consent", and fails to grasp the difference between the sexual assault of a minor and the sexual assault of an adult. In the case of not making a legally important evaluation of the minor’s wishes, we should start with the unequal relation between the offender and the offended, and the interpretation perspective should turn to "the superior or inferior positions of sex". The understanding of "special duties" does not take the existence of "duty" as necessary, but should be based on the "responsibility" that the offender shoulders for the minor so that the regulation effect can be verified. The legislative design of non-exhaustive enumeration is beneficial to deal with the flexible social reality, but it should be restrained to avoid the abuse, and to bring the liability form which does not have the dominant position into the category of criminal law. If the actor satisfies the "special duty" list, he is naturally in a dominant position. But there is still room for noncrime for one who does not make use of the influence formed by the dominant position to have sexual relations with the minor.
 
Key words: the crime of sexual assault by special duties; the superior or inferior positions of sex; special duties; influence; noncrime
 
 
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