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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年01月第27卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)01-0130-09
 
分析的马克思主义与马克思平等思想的理论分野
 
陈权,钟明华
 
(中山大学马克思主义学院,广东广州,510275)
 
摘  要: 分析的马克思主义者在发掘和阐释马克思的正义思想时,试图突显平等的“规范性”意义,以此表明马克思的正义思想对自由主义正义理论的超越性。他们认为,不平等是资本主义社会内部始终存在的重大问题。对此问题的解决以及对资本逻辑的批判,既不能延续传统马克思主义的研究方法,也不要寄希望于社会主义的到来;而要在当代资本主义社会新的变化形势下,从剥削的非道德意义出发,突出平等的伦理规范性内涵。唯有如此,才能真正有效地对资本主义展开批判,彰显历史唯物主义的精神实质。这种理解突出了平等在马克思政治哲学中的话语地位,但它是在剥离历史唯物主义的语境的情况下对平等做出的“规范性”的解读,忽视了平等的实践性和历史性。厘清并阐释分析的马克思主义和马克思在平等问题上的理论分野,不仅能够揭示马克思平等思想的多重维度,彰显其整体性特征,而且能够进一步加深对马克思政治哲学的理解,推进其在新时代的理论发展。
 
关键词: 分析的马克思主义;马克思平等思想;马克思政治哲学规范性;平等;正义
 
 
Theoretical distinction between analytical Marxism and Karl Marx's normative equality
 
CHEN Quan, ZHONG Minghua
 
(School of Marxism, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China)
 
Abstract: In exploring and interpreting Carl Marx's thoughts on justice, analytical Marxists attempt to highlight the significance of his normative equality so as to show the transcendence of Marx's justice over the theory of liberal justice. They argue that inequality is a major problem that has always existed in capitalist society itself. To solve this problem and to criticize the logic of capital, we can neither continue with the research method of the traditional Marxism nor look to the advent of socialism. Rather, it is necessary to highlight the ethical normative connotations of equality in the light of the new changes in contemporary capitalist society, starting from the amoral meaning of exploitation. Only in this way, can a critique at capitalism be truly effective and manifest the spiritual essence of historical materialism. Such understanding does highlight the discursive status of equality in Marx's political philosophy, but it results from the normative interpretation of equality within the context a stripped-down historical materialism which inevitably overlooks the practical and historical nature of equality. Therefore, clarifying and explaining the theoretical distinction between analytical Marxism and Marx's equality can not only reveal the multiple dimensions of Marx's thought on equality and highlight its holistic character, but also further deepen the understanding of Marxist political philosophy and advance its theoretical development in the present era.
 
Key words: analytical Marxism; Marx's thoughts on equality; normative of Marx's political philosophy; equality; justice
 
 
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