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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年11月第25卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)06-0065-11
 
犯罪化背景下犯罪附随后果的重构
 
徐久生,师晓东
 
(中国政法大学刑事司法学院,北京,100088)
 
摘  要: 在我国刑事立法的犯罪化背景下,如何应对犯罪附随后果带来的负面效应颇具研究价值。犯罪附随后果根据职业关联性和禁止期限两个标准设置,在性质上属于保安处分。正当化根据在于预防行为人再犯和保障特定职业的利益。从业资格限制的程度和范围应遵循比例原则之要求,以此为审视标准,犯罪附随后果过度压制公民的职业自由,与微罪的匹配不均衡并且会产生新的社会问题,这消解了犯罪化立法的积极功能。在犯罪附随后果的重构路径选择上,应当回归其保安处分的性质。针对一般职业,整合刑法内、外的从业禁止,由此解决犯罪附随后果在职业关联性、禁止期限和司法性方面存在的问题,以及消弭两种从业禁止的体系性冲突;针对公职与公共服务职业,构建类似“褫夺公职”的处分。
 
关键词: 犯罪化;犯罪附随后果;职业资格;保安处分;比例原则
 
 
Reconstruction of the collateral consequences of crime under the background of criminalization
 
XU Jiusheng, SHI Xiaodong
 
(School of Criminal Justice, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing100088, China)
 
Abstract: Under the background of criminalization, how to avoid the negative effects of the collateral consequences of crime is of great value. Collateral consequences of crime, which belong to security measures in nature, are set up according to two standards: occupational relevancy and prohibition period. The basis of justification lies in restraining the danger of recidivism and safeguarding the interests of specific professions. The extent and scope of the restriction of employment qualification should follow the requirement of the principle of proportionality. Taking this as a value criterion to examine, the collateral consequences of crime are excessive suppression of citizens' right to professional freedom in content, unbalanced in matching minor crimes, and resulting in new social problems, which, to a certain extent, has eliminated the positive function of criminalization legislation. In choosing the reconstruction path of the consequences of crime, we should return to the nature of security measures. In the field of the general occupation, we should integrate the prohibitions of employment both inside and outside the criminal law so as to solve the problems of occupational relevance, prohibition period and judicature of the collateral consequences of crime, and eliminate the systematic conflicts between the two prohibitions. In the field of public office and public service profession ,we should construct similar prohibitory measures to "deprive of public office".
 
Key words: criminalization; collateral consequence; professional qualification; security measures; principle of proportionality
 
 
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