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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年11月第25卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)06-0042-07
 
应得正义、异化劳动与超越性正义——论青年马克思对劳动应得正义观的批评与超越
 
李永刚
 
(长江大学马克思主义学院,湖北荆州,434023)
 
摘  要: 西方主流的正义观是应得正义,评判应得与否的根据经历了从“德性”到“劳动”的转变。近代以来,洛克、亚当·斯密、黑格尔依据各自的理论前提论证了劳动应得正义和权利原则的正当性,从而论证了资本主义制度的正义性。青年马克思以异化劳动为切入点,分析了资本主义私有制下劳动的异化所导致的人的非人生存状态,人丧失了其类本质而异化为资本的奴隶,由此论证了劳动应得正义的非正义性。要实现真正的正义,就必须消灭私有制,扬弃异化劳动,实现“人的解放”而建立起共产主义社会,与这种人性全面复归和生产力高度发展的共产主义社会相应的正义观念就是“需要原则”,这是一种彻底超越劳动应得正义的超越性的正义观念。
 
关键词: 正义;劳动应得正义;异化劳动;人的解放;需要原则
 
 
Justice as deserved, alienated labor and transcendental justice: On the criticism and transcendence of the idea of justice as labor deserved in young Marx
 
LI Yonggang
 
(School of Marxism, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China)
 
Abstract: In the west, the dominant idea of justice is justice as deserved, and the basis for judging whether it deserves or not has undergone a change from “virtue” to “labor”. In modern times, Locke, Adam Smith and Hegel demonstrated the legitimacy of justice as labor deserved and the principle of right based on their respective theoretical premises, thus demonstrating the justice of capitalism. With alienated labor as the starting point, young Marx analyzed the non-human existence of humans caused by the alienation of labor under capitalist private ownership. Humans, having lost the essence of being their species, are alienated into slaves of capital, thus demonstrating the injustice of the justice as labor deserved. In order to achieve true justice, we must eliminate private ownership, sublate alienated labor, achieve “human emancipation” and establish the communist society. The idea of justice corresponding to this society, in which human nature is restored and productive force is highly developed, is the principle of need. It is the transcendental justice that transcends completely the justice as labor deserved.
 
Key words: justice; justice as labor deserved; alienated labor; human emancipation; the principle of need
 
 
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