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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年07月第25卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)04-0034-07
 
权力符号的存在条件——象征交换理论与总体呈献理论的理解差异
 
刘临达
 
(中南大学马克思主义学院, 湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 象征交换理论是鲍德里亚符号学的重要理论,是西方马克思主义阐释权力的著名政治哲学维度。但是象征交换理论对权力发生学的两个关键问题缺乏解释:参与者为什么会加入带有生死冒险的符号游戏;为什么共同体生成符号会发生转变。由于存在权力发生学意义上的这种解释缺位,象征交换思维只能被当作某种天然思维。考察其理论来源发现,莫斯在描述“礼物机制”时,曾对生死冒险和共同体生成符号演变原因有解释。莫斯的描述和传统马克思主义关于经济基础和上层建筑的辩证关系理论有很大契合性。因此,重新比对莫斯和鲍德里亚关于权力的理解差异,是重构该理论、增强该向度的解释力的重要环节。
 
关键词: 权力;象征交换;礼物机制;莫斯;鲍德里亚
 
 
The existence conditions of power signs: The understanding difference between symbolic exchange theory and general presentation theory
 
LIU Linda
 
(School of Marxism, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: Symbolic exchange theory is an important theory of Baudrillard's semiotics and a well-known political and philosophical dimension of power interpretation of Western Marxism. But there are two fatal explanatory vacancies in the theory of symbolic exchange: What is the cause of life and death adventure? And what is the change of symbols generated by the community? In the absence of such an explanation, it seems that life-and-death adventure and "gift" thinking are both natural mechanisms. However, when examining its theoretical sources, Moss describes the "gift" mechanism precisely in that there is an explanation about life-and-death adventure and the evolution of symbols of community formation. Moreover, Moss's description is in good agreement with the traditional Marxist theory on the dialectical relationship between economic foundation and superstructure. Therefore, reconsidering the differences of understanding of power between Moss and Baudrillard is an important link in reconstructing the theory and enhancing the explanatory power of this dimension.
 
Key words: power; symbolic exchange; gift; Moss; Baudrillard
 
 
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