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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2017年05月第23卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2017)03-0013-07
 
论黑格尔的劳动概念及其困境
 
吴鹏
 
(吉林大学哲学社会学院,吉林长春,130012)
 
摘  要: 青年黑格尔从古典经济学那里继承了“劳动”概念,并在劳动论题的理解上开创了一种全新的视角。他把古典经济学中最为核心和基础的经济学概念“劳动”纳入哲学的理论视界,将其运用于人与自然、人与自我、人与社会等问题的哲学思考,使劳动概念从形而下的经济学层面转换到形而上的哲学层面,超越了古典经济学对劳动的“物性”的单向度理解,凸显了劳动概念的“人性”内涵。但在黑格尔的哲学体系中,作为人类安身立命之本的物质生产活动也只是“绝对”彰显自己的一个环节,如此以来,黑格尔的劳动概念必然无法挣脱“绝对精神”的黑洞。马克思深刻地洞见了黑格尔劳动概念的困境与局限,从立场、方法和观点这三个方面对黑格尔的劳动概念展开了整体性的批判,成功地把“劳动”从绝对精神的笼罩中拯救出来,作为自己整个世界观和全部哲学的思想地平。
 
关键词: 黑格尔;马克思;劳动;古典经济学;主奴关系;市民社会;异化
 
 
On Hegel’s concept of labor and its dilemma
 
WU Peng
 
(School of Philosophy and Society, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China)
 
Abstract: Young Hegel inherited the concept of “labor” from classical economics and opened up a whole new perspective to understand the thesis of labor. He brought the most core and basic economic concept of “labor” from classical economics into the theoretical vision of philosophy. Hegel applied labor to philosophical thinking of human and nature, human and self, human and society and other questions which made the concept of labor shift from the level of physics economy to the level of philosophical metaphysics. This surpasses the one-dimensional understanding of “thing” of labor in classical economics and highlights the connotation of human nature of labor concept. But in Hegel’s philosophical system, as the basis of settling down and living in peace, material production activity is only a link that absoluteness demonstrates itself. In this sense, Hegel’s concept of labor will definitely be stuck in the black hole of “absolute spirit”. Marx had profound insights into the difficulties and limitations of Hegel’s concept of labor, criticizing it from position, method and viewpoints, then putting the “labor” out of the shadow of “absolute spirit”, and making it the thinking horizon of his whole world outlook and philosophy.
 
Key words: Hegel; Marx; labor; classical economics; master-slave relationship; civil society; alienation
 
 
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