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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年08月第22卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)04-0137-06
 
论我国民族优惠的政策转向与话语重构
 
朱碧波
 
(云南师范大学历史与行政学院,云南昆明,650500)
 
摘  要: 我国是一个民族二元结构相对突出的多民族国家。为了实现少数民族与主体民族均衡协调的发展,我国实施了以“民族身份”作为社会资源倾斜性分配依据的民族优惠政策,在很大程度上促进了少数民族整体性发展。然而,随着时代变迁和社会嬗变,民族优惠政策的外溢效应渐趋凸显,民族优惠政策的存废也引发了学术界激烈而持久的思想交锋。事实上,由于我国民族二元结构在当前依然缺乏实质性改观,民族优惠政策仍然具有生存和发挥作用的空间。不过,鉴于民族优惠政策效力递减的客观现实,我国也应该逐渐以“区域主义”和“位差主义”的扶助政策替代“民族身份”取向的民族优惠政策,并通过重构“民族优惠”的话语体系,推动各民族形成“民族互惠”的中华民族共同体意识。
 
关键词: 民族优惠;民族互惠;民族话语;区域主义;位差主义
 
 
Policy turn and discourse reconstruction of ethnic minority preference in China
 
ZHU Bibo
 
(School of History and Administration, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China)
 
Abstract: China boasts of multi ethnic minorities with remarkable binary structure. In order to realize the balanced development between the ethnic minorities and majority, our country implements ethnic minority preferential policies with ethnic identity as the standard in allocating social resources inclinedly, which promotes their holistic development. However, with the development of the age and evolution of the society, the spillover effect of ethnic minority preferential policies began to highlight, arousing in academia heated and long-lasting controversy over its maintaining or abolishing. In fact, there is still much room for such policies to survive and develop because there still lacks critical change in the binary structure in our ethinicity. But, in view of the spillover effect of the ethnic minority preferential policies, we should turn gradually from the ethnicity-oriented preferential policies to difference-oriented support policies such as regionalism and difference discipline, and reconstruct the discourse system of national preference to promote the awareness of Chinese ethnic community that all ethnic groups form national reciprocity.
 
Key words: ethnic minority preference; national reciprocity; ethnic discourse; regionalism; difference principle
 
 
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