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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2016年08月第22卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2016)04-0124-07
 
被冻结的民主:政治道德的破产与绝对自由的悖论——费赫尔对法国大革命的政治哲学批判
 
温权
 
(南京大学马克思主义学院,江苏南京,210023)
 
摘  要: 因激进的政治主张和不成熟的民主实践,法国大革命为后世广为诟病。尤其以恐怖专制的雅各宾主义在西方政治话语体系下被反复批驳。费赫尔从国家政治与人民主权之间的关系出发认为,由“指券体系”所催生的国家干预政策与“德性共和国”的虚假预设,是大革命从民主走向专制的内在根源。他们将抽象的道德理想投射于具体的政治领域,并借助暴力手段使之进一步泛化到社会各个层面,从而强制营造出德性-国家-民主的蹩脚统一。当道德的衡量标准被肉身化为世俗的革命领导者时,政治民主就被道德专制所取代。其过程本质是哲学层面的绝对自由仓促应用于现实社会的结果。因此,大革命的失败,归根结底是一场哲学实验的失败。而对大革命内涵的揭示,不是要脱离于它的历史区间以思辨的形式凌驾于现实之上,而是要通过展示现代社会的经济运动规律,从而缩短和减轻历史进程中不必要的“痛苦”。
 
关键词: 费赫尔;法国大革命;雅各宾主义;民主;专制;德性共和国;绝对自由
 
 
The frozen democracy: bankruptcy of political morality and the paradox of absolute freedom
 
WEN Quan
 
(School of Marxism, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China)
 
Abstract: The French Revolution has been widely criticized by the later generations for its radical political ideas and immature democratic practices. Especially in the system of western political, the terrorist autocracy Jacobinsism has been repeatedly refuted. From the relationship between the national politics and the sovereignty of the people, Feher considers that the state intervention policy born out of “the voucher system” and the false presupposition of “the Republic of virtue” are the inherent causes for the revolution to turn from democracy to autocracy. They project the abstract moral ideals to the specific political sphere, and further generalize it into all aspects of the society by means of violence, which enforce a poor unity of morality, nation and democracy. When moral standard is embodied as a secular revolutionary leader, political democracy is to be replaced by moral autocracy, which essentially results in that absolute freedom at the philosophical level is applied to the real society. Therefore, the failure of the revolution is, in the final analysis, a failure of the philosophical experiment. But the connotation of revolution reveals that revolution should not break away from its historical range to go beyond reality in the speculative form, but reduce and lessen the historical process of unnecessary pain by showing the laws of economic movement in modern society.
 
Key words: Feher; the French Revolution; Jacobinsism; democracy; autocracy; virtue republic; absolute freedom
 
 
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