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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2015年10月第21卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2015)05-0058-07
 
3D打印商标使用与侵权认定法律问题研究
 
孙益武
 
(杭州师范大学法学院,浙江杭州,311121)
 
摘  要: 如果3D打印机家庭应用得到普及,个人可以打印3D物品和商标标识,传统产品制造和销售过程的商标使用和侵权认定将面临冲击和挑战。根据现行商标制度,打印附有商标的3D物品构成对注册商标的使用;未经授权的商标使用构成商标侵权。商标权例外规则只能有限适用,而大量分散3D打印行为对权利人的经济利益造成严重损害,3D打印中的商标使用不能适用“合理使用”和“个人自用”等商标权例外规则。设计者在3D数据文件中对商标的使用应当属于在商业活动中使用“虚拟商标”,需要取得商标授权;未经授权的使用构成商标侵权。我国可通过建立3D打印控制系统、规范3D数据文件上传和谨慎设定商标例外规则等措施,确保在3D打印时代对商标权有效保护,同时促进3D打印产业的健康发展。
 
关键词: 3D打印;商标使用;商标侵权;合理使用;权利例外
 
 
Study on legal issues of the trademark use andinfringement cognizance of 3D printing
 
SUN Yiwu
 
(School of Law, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China)
 
Abstract: If domestic 3D printers become popular, the individual can print 3D commodities and trademark logos. Thus, such issues as trademark use and infringement cognizance in the traditional manufacturing and marketing process will be faced with new shocks and challenges. In accordance with current trademark system, the printing of trademark with 3D printer is a kind of trademark use, and unauthorized use of trademarks constitutes trademark infringement. Trademark exception rules only apply to a limited situation, but a number of discrete 3D printing behaviors cause serious damage to the economic interests of rights holders; 3D printing can not be applied in the use of “fair use” or “personal use”, which is regarded as a kind of trademark exception. The designers of the 3D data file whose use of the trademark should constitute the use of “virtual trademark” in business activities, need to obtain trademark licensing; those unauthorized uses constitute trademark infringement. China should ensure effective protection of trademark in the 3D printing era, and promote the healthy development of 3D printing industry by establishing 3D printing control systems, standardizing the measures of uploading 3D data file, and setting prudently the trademark exception rules.
 
Key words: 3D printing; trademark use; trademark infringement; fair use; right exception
 
 
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