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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年08月第20卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)04-0254-05
 
明代南京官话的语音系统及其历史地位
 
封传兵
 
(湖南理工学院中文系,湖南岳阳,414006)
 
摘  要: 李登、李世泽父子的《书文音义便考私编》《韵法横图》以及传教士金尼阁的《西儒耳目资》真实地记录了明代中后期南京官话的语音面貌,这种官话语音系统包含21个声母、60个韵母、5个声调,其语音特色突出表现为疑母和微母的独立,泥母来母不混,区分尖音和团音,庄组字两分读tʂ和ts,山摄uon的独立,区分前后鼻音韵-n和-ŋ,闭口韵m尾的消失等。有明一代至清代中后期,南京官话可能一直充当着汉民族共同语标准音的角色,在沟通汉语各地方言、促进民族团结和融合等方面起到了极其重要的作用和影响。
 
关键词: 《书文音义便考私编》;《韵法横图》;《西儒耳目资》;明代南京官话;汉民族共同语;标准音
 
 
Research on the Phonetics System and Historical Status of Nanjing Mandarin in the Ming Dynasty
 
FENG Chuanbing
 
(College of Chinese Language and Literature, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology,
Yueyang HuNan 414006, China)
 
Abstract: ShuWen YinYi BianKao SiBian, YuFaHengTu written by LI Deng and his son LI Size, and XiRuErMuZi  written by Nicolas Trigault have reflected the Nanjing Mandarin Phonetics in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, which has 21 initials, 60 finals and 5 tones. The characteristics of the Mandarin Phonetics system are found to have initials of Yi and Wei, Zhuang group reading tʂ and ts, independent uon of Shan group; -m of closed rhyme disappeared. From Ming dynasty to the middle and late Qing dynasty, Nanjing Mandarin served as the Han Nationality's Common Language Standard Pronunciation and played an irreplaceable role, promoting national unity and integration, communication around the Chinese dialect.
 
Key words: ShuWen YinYi BianKao SiBian; YuFaHengTu; XiRuErMuZi; the Nanjing Mandarin in the Ming dynasty; the Han Nationality’s Common Language; standard pronunciation
 
 
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