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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年08月第20卷第4期
   
本文已被:浏览2072次    下载863次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2014)04-0209-06
 
冷战初期(1951—1961)美国对日本工会心理战政策探析
 
白玉平
 
(东北师范大学历史文化学院,吉林长春,130024)
 
摘  要: 工会组织是冷战时期东西方两大阵营争夺的重要目标。冷战初期,为了清除共产主义对日本的影响,加强其亲美导向,杜鲁门和艾森豪威尔两届政府对日本工会组织实施了形式多样的心理战活动。美国对日心理战政策的效果往往受到美日关系的深刻影响,在短期内很难显现成效。但从长期来看,美国对日本工会持续的文化与宣传活动,一方面培养了一批认同西方理念、追随美国的工会领导人;另一方面成功导致了日本工会的分裂。更重要的是,美国倡导的“温和”斗争路线逐渐被日本工会所接受,并最终使工会组织成为日本政治格局中的“温和的反对派”。
 
关键词: 冷战;美国;心理战;日本工会
 
 
An analysis of U.S. psychological warfare on Japan’s Labor Unions (1951—1961)
 
BAI Yuping
 
(School of History and Culture, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China)
 
Abstract: Labor unions were a crucial battlefront in the Cold War. In Early Cold War era, the Truman and Eisenhower administration set out varied psychological war activities on Japanese labor unions. America’s psychological war policy was influenced seriously by U.S. -Japan relations. Consequently, America’s psychological war policy could’t achieve the desired effect in the short term. But in the long run, United States fostered a batch of labor leaders who followed American ways of labor organization, and on the other side, Japanese labor unions were divided into “pro-communist” and “pro-American” categories under the impact of American policy. Finally, Japanese labor unions accepted the moderate struggle line projected by United States, and took advantage of ballot for labor’s rights, thus labor unions became a “moderate opposition” and an important political power in Japan.
 
Key words: Cold War; United States; psychological war; Japan’s labor unions
 
 
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