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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年06月第20卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2014)03-0134-05
 
客观合理信赖先例的“善意例外”
——论戴维斯案对美国非法证据排除规则 “善意例外” 的新发展
 
贺红强
 
(广东医学院人文与管理学院,广东东莞,523808)
 
摘  要: “善意例外”是美国非法证据排除规则的一种例外。在戴维斯案件之前,美国联邦最高法院已确立了几种 “善意例外”的类型,戴维斯案件确立了一种新的“善意例外”,即客观合理信赖先例的“善意例外”。当警察搜查时客观上合理依赖有约束力的司法先例,但后来该先例已被改变,此种情况下搜查获得的证据不应适用非法证据排除规则。建立这种“善意例外”是因为警察没有过错,且适用非法证据排除规则不能遏制警察的违法行为。建立客观合理信赖先例的“善意例外”并没有危及溯及既往原则,也不会阻碍第四修正案的发展。
 
关键词: 非法证据排除;善意例外;溯及既往;客观合理信赖先例的“善意例外”
 
 
Good-faith Exception for objectively reasonable reliance on binding precedent
 
HE Hongqiang
 
(Humanity and Management School of Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, China)
 
Abstract: Good-faith exception is a kind of exclusionary rule. Before Davis v. United States, several good-faith exceptions were established by Supreme Court of the United States. Good-faith exception for objectively reasonable reliance on binding precedent was established in Davis v. United States. The Supreme Court held that when the police conducted a search in objectively reasonable reliance on binding appellate precedent, the exclusionary rule should not be applied. Applying the good-faith exception is not only because officer is inculpable, but also because applying the good-faith exception can not deter future Fourth Amendment violations. Good-faith exception for objectively reasonable reliance on binding precedent is compatible with retroactivity precedent. Good-faith exception for objectively reasonable reliance on binding precedent will not stunt the development of Fourth Amendment law.
 
Key words: exclusionary rule; good faith exception; doctrine of retroactivity; a good-faith exception for objectively reasonable reliance on binding precedent
 
 
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