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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年06月第20卷第3期
   
本文已被:浏览2070次    下载974次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2014)03-0050-08
 
完整性与功利主义伦理学
——论伯纳德·威廉斯对功利主义的批判
 
任付新
 
(山东大学哲学与社会发展学院,山东济南,250100)
 
摘  要: 伯纳德·威廉斯强调哲学必须直面人类生活的复杂性和困难性,他批判以往哲学回避现实,特别是功利主义和康德主义,以恶劣的方式将生活简单化,忽视了个人情感、规划和运气对伦理生活的影响。他通过对功利主义后果论结构的分析,指出其中所包含的消极责任特征,批判功利主义忽视了个人分离性的重要性以及对个人完整性的破坏。威廉斯强调个人是情感需要、功利偏好和理性能力的综合体,主张应该从人的主体自身出发去思考道德问题,认为重要问题是人如何过有意义的生活,而不是我应该遵守什么样的规则。威廉斯的批判是强有力的,对功利主义的发展具有重要启发。
 
关键词: 伯纳德·威廉斯;个人完整性;后果论;消极责任;不偏不倚;功利主义
 
 
Integrity and utilitarianism ethics——On Bernard Williams’s criticism of utilitarianism
 
REN Fuxin
 
(School of Philosophy and Sociology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China)
 
Abstract: Bernard Williams emphasizes that philosophy must face the complexity and difficulty of human life. He criticizes the previous philosophy shields away from reality, especially utilitarianism and Kantian ethics, they simplify life by despicable ways and ignore the impact of personal feelings, individual project and luck on ethical life. By analyzing the consequential structure of utilitarianism, he points out that it involves negative responsibility, and he also criticizes utilitarianism that overlooks the importance of separateness of persons. Williams emphasizes that individual is the complex of emotional needs, utility preference and rational ability, hence he claims that we should consider moral problems from person’s subject itself, and the important issue is how people live a meaningful life, rather than what kind of rules should be followed. Bernard Williams’s criticism is powerful and has great inspiration to the development of utilitarianism.
 
Key words: Bernard Williams; personal integrity; consequentialism; negative responsibility; impartiality; utilitarianism
 
 
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