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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2014年02月第20卷第1期
   
本文已被:浏览1898次    下载911次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2014)01-0223-06
 
论美国内战时期自由民局的创建
 
王淑霞
 
(济南大学历史与文化产业学院,山东济南,250022)
 
摘  要: 内战期间,大量逃奴及获得自由的数百万黑人无以为生。起初,是联邦军队、民间团体及慈善组织采取种种措施帮助他们生存。军队及民间力量的不足促使联邦政府承担起解决黑人生活问题的责任,国会对建立自由民局的必要性、合宪性等问题进行了辩论,支持建立者获得微弱优势,最终建立起统一的帮助自由民、难民重建社会生活与生产秩序的联邦机构自由民局。它的创建是美国福利制度发展史上的突破,预示了联邦制下权力布局的改变。
 
关键词: 自由民局;美国内战;合宪性;美国联邦福利机构;美国国会
 
 
On the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau at the end of American Civil War
 
WANG Shuxia
 
(School of History and Culture Industry, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China)
 
Abstract: During the American Civil War, a large number of escaped slaves and liberated blacks lived on nothing. At first, it was the Federal Army and Folk Group and Charitable Organization that adopted some measures to keep them alive. At the same time, the military and folk limitation precipitated the federal government to undertake the duty of caring the of blacks, and the Congress disputed the necessity and constitutionality to establish the Freedmen’s Bureau to support the feeble majority, which resulted in the establishing of the Freedmen’s Bureau that helped the freedmen and refugees reconstruct the order of the social life and production. Its foundation was the breakthrough of the welfare system, presaging the change of power layout under the Federal System.
 
Key words: Freedmen’s Bureau; American Civil War; constitutionality; the United States Federal Welfase Agence; America’s Congress
 
 
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