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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2006年10月第12卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2006)04-0528-06
 
古典惩罚伦理学范式的突破
———从柏拉图到塞涅卡
 
吴新民
 
(浙江大学人文学院,浙江杭州, 310028)
 
摘  要: 塞涅卡立足于斯多亚精神对惩罚现象作了深入的反思,他继承、批判并发展了柏拉图和亚里斯多德的惩罚理论,创造出一种特别的惩罚伦理学。他集中批评了惩罚中的愤怒和残忍,提倡理性、宽和、仁慈的惩罚。这种惩罚伦理学是对古典哲学的价值范式的突破:伦理学的最高价值不在于要帮助人获得最高的幸福,而在于让人免受伤害,尤其是免除统治者以公正的惩罚之名对个人的伤害。塞涅卡的这一思想,改变了斯多亚哲学一贯“出世”的冷酷精神,表现出对普通个人的生存与尊严的深切关怀,显示了与现代政治伦理相通的一面。
 
关键词: 塞涅卡;斯多亚;惩罚;仁慈
 
 
The breakthrough of classical punishment ethics paradigm
———from Plato to Seneca
 
WU Xinmin
 
(Institute of Philosophy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China)
 
Abstract: On the basis of Stoic philosophy,Seneca made a deep reflection on punishment. Through inheriting and criticising Plato and Aristotle s theory of punishment, he established a special theory of punishment ethics. This theory advocated rational, kind, merciful punishment while criticising anger and cruelty in punishment. It transcends the values paradigm of classical philosophy: The best value of ethics is not to help people acquire good , but to prevent people form harm, especially the harm from the ruler in the name of just punishment. This theory of Seneca changes the Stoic philosophy s grim image of“standing aloof from world affairs”, shows a profound concern for personal life and dignity, reveals something like modern political ethics.
 
Key words: seneca; stoic; punishment; mercy
 
 
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