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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2024年03月第30卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2024)02-0051-13
 
论环境领域刑事诉权与民事公益诉权的协调
 
肖峰
 
(湘潭大学法学院,湖南湘潭,411105)
 
摘  要: 严重的环境损害行为是刑事诉权和民事公益诉权共同的适用对象,但我国立法并未明确规定两诉权同时行使时的关系如何处理,实践中呈现出环境民事公益诉讼附从于刑事诉讼,后者却疏离前者的现象。这是由于环境民事公益诉讼在客体范围、主体资格、诉求实现方面,与刑事诉权具有高度的亲缘性,但在办案时限、诉权成本、财产刑执行方面又与刑事诉权不相协调。因此,应当在立足两诉权适用对象具有同一性的基础上,以优先修复受损的生态环境为导向,在刑事办案过程中实行公益损害审查的法定化模式,从批捕或介入侦查环节开始即可启动民事公益诉权,遵循“附带为原则,不附带为例外”的要求,与法院的审判权良性互动,实现两诉权的有效协调。
 
关键词: 生态环境损害;刑事诉权;民事公益诉权;制度协调
 
 
On the coordination of criminal litigation right and civil public interest litigation right in the environmental field
 
XIAO Feng
 
(School of Law, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China)
 
Abstract: The severe environmental damage behaviors constitute the common applicable objects of the right of criminal litigation and the right of civil public litigation. However, the legislation in our country does not clearly stipulate the relationship between the exercise of two rights of public litigation. And in practice, it shows that environmental civil public interest litigation should be attached to the criminal litigation, but the latter is alienated from the former. This is because environmental civil public interest litigation has a high degree of affinity with the constituent elements of criminal right of action in terms of object scope, subject qualification and realization of appeal, but it is inconsistent with criminal right of action in terms of time limit of handling cases, cost of exercising the right of action and execution of property punishment. Therefore, based on the same applicable objects of the two rights of action, and oriented by prioritizing restoration of the damaged eco-environment, we should implement a legalized model of public interest damage review in the process of criminal case handling, initiate immediately civil public interest right of action from the process of arrest approval or intervention investigation, abide by the requirement that the incidental be the principle with no incidental being the exception, positively interact with the judicial power of the court, and finally realize the effective coordination of the two rights of action.
 
Key words: ecological environmental damage; criminal litigation right; civil public litigation right; regulating coordination
 
 
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