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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2024年03月第30卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2024)02-0015-10
 
“文本诠释”与“现实投射”:杜预、范宁《春秋序》中的历史与建构
 
许超杰
 
(湖南大学岳麓书院,湖南长沙,410081)
 
摘  要: 杜预《春秋经传集解序》将“《春秋》始于隐”指向周平王与鲁隐公时间上的相接,范宁《春秋穀梁传集解序》亦承其说,但二者仍存在很大的差异。杜预在强调时间相接的同时,亦将鲁隐公视为让国之贤君,从而将鲁隐公比之周公,对其有再兴东周的期待;但在《穀梁》的脉络下,范宁不能将鲁隐公视为贤君,而只能冀望于孔子的“将来法”。也就是说,在杜预、范宁笔下,周公、孔子产生了不同的位阶,“圣人制作”的主体也就随之改变,从而形成了“再造中兴”与“俟诸将来”两种不同的期待。究其实,则是西晋初“绍开中兴”与东晋末“礼崩乐坏”的历史现实在杜预、范宁文本中的投射,从而产生了二者对《春秋》与“圣人”的不同解读与诠释。但二者对《春秋》的解读并不仅仅是“知人论世”,更是要“知事用世”,期待《春秋》由经典文本进入历史世界,从而使现世走向《春秋》所昭示的“王道世界”。
 
关键词: 《春秋》;杜预;范宁;孔子;周公
 
 
"Textual interpretation" and "realpolitik": History and construction in Preface to Spring and Autumn Annals by Du Yu and Fan Ning
 
XU Chaojie
 
(Yuelu Academy, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China)
 
Abstract: Du Yu, in his Preface to Spring and Autumn Annals, explained that "Spring and Autumn Annals begins with Yin" as the time link between King Ping of Zhou and Yin Gong of Lu, while Fan Ning, in his Preface to Gu Liang Zhuan, endorsed Du's explanation. But there still exist huge differences between them. Du Yu, while emphasizing the time link, regarded Lu Yin Gong as a good king of the kingdom, compared him to great Zhou Gong, and expected him to start the revival of Eastern Zhou. However, in the context of Gu Liang, Fan Ning could not regard Lu Yin Gong as a good king, and could only lay expectation on Confucius' "future law". In other terms, under Du Yu's and Fan Ning's pens, Zhou Gong and Confucius were put in different important positions. Along with this, the subjectivity of "sage production" also changed, thus forming two different expectations of "re-creation in rejuvenation" and "waiting for the future". The main reasons behind it lie in the different realpolitik projected by Du Yu's text and Fan Ning's text with the former living in the early period of the Western Jin Dynasty, a period of "starting to revive revival", while the latter Fan Ning living at the end of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, a period of with collapsed rites and corrupted morale. The different backgrounds of the times led to different understandings and interpretations of Spring and Autumn Annals and of sages. But their different readings of Spring and Autumn Annals lie not only in "knowing the human and commenting on the world", but more in "knowing the thing and utilizing the world", in the hope that Spring and Autumn Annals, as a literary canon, can also walk into and exert impact on the real world so as to make the existing modern world move towards the "golden age" proclaimed by Spring and Autumn Annals.
 
Key words: Spring and Autumn Annals; Du Yue; Fan Ning; Confucius; Zhou Gong
 
 
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