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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2024年01月第30卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2024)01-0087-12
 
战略性矿产概念和矿种目录的国际比较研究
 
陈从喜1, 2,张雅丽1,孙春强1,曹庭语1
 
(1. 自然资源部信息中心,北京,100812;
2. 中南大学地方治理研究院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 在复杂严峻的国际形势和地缘政治背景下,战略性矿产成为大国关注的焦点。明晰不同国家或地区关于战略性矿产的定义、内涵和种类,对于及时有效应对和降低风险有重要意义。研究发现,因背景和出发点不同,世界主要国家或地区对具有重要意义的特殊矿产所赋予的名称和内涵有所不同。中国和俄罗斯的战略性矿产内涵最为接近,均同时关注国家安全和经济发展,是一个全局性、地域性概念。美国、欧盟、澳大利亚、加拿大定义的关键矿产或关键原材料更加关注矿产资源对新技术和新兴产业的支撑作用,日本定义的重要矿产则强调对高尖端产业的支撑作用和对低碳转型的推动作用。不同国家或地区战略性矿产的评估方法也存在差异,但矿种目录均已形成相对固定的更新机制和周期。鉴于此,提出政策建议:中国需完善战略性矿产目录的更新机制,确保战略性矿产目录科学、及时和有效;增强战略性矿产的勘查和储备力度,提升国内供应能力;加强科技创新,重点研发高端矿物材料;加强国际合作,重构全球矿业治理体系。
 
关键词: 战略性矿产;资源安全;评估方法;矿业治理
 
 
International comparative study on the concept and list of strategic minerals
 
CHEN Congxi1, 2, ZHANG Yali1, SUN Chunqiang1, CAO Tingyu1
 
(1. Information Center of Minister of Natural Resources, Beijing 100812, China;
2. Institute for local Governance of Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: Under the complicated and challenging international situation and geopolitical environment, strategic minerals have become the focus of great powers. Clarifying the definition, connotation and types of strategic minerals in different countries or regions is of great significance for timely and effective response and risk reduction. The research finds that due to different backgrounds and starting points, different countries or regions give different names and connotations to special minerals of great significance. The strategic mineral contents of China and Russia are the closest, and both pay attention to national security and economic development at the same time, which is a global and regional concept. The critical minerals or critical raw materials defined by the United States, the European Union, Australia and Canada pay more attention to the supporting role of mineral resources for new technologies and emerging industries, while the important minerals defined by Japan emphasize the supporting role of high-cutting-edge industries and the promoting role of low-carbon transformation. There are differences in the evaluation methods of strategic minerals in different countries or regions, but a relatively fixed updating mechanism of mineral list has been formed. In view of this, the paper puts forward policy recommendations that China needs to improve the updating mechanism of strategic mineral list to ensure that the list is scientific, timely and effective, needs to strengthen the exploration and reserve of strategic minerals and enhance the domestic supply capacity, to strengthen scientific and technological innovation, focusing on the development of high-end minerals, and to strengthen international cooperation and restructure the global mining governance system.
 
Key words: strategic minerals; resource security; evaluation method; mining governance
 
 
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