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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年07月第29卷第4期
   
本文已被:浏览227次    下载142次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2023)04-0073-12
 
“公益数据私人控制”的破解:确立私主体的数据开放义务
 
冉高苒,高富平
 
(华东政法大学法律学院,上海,200042)
 
摘  要: 全面数据开放是构建数据经济的制度基础,而当前我国地方政府积极探索构建的公共数据开放制度存在明显局限。制度设计者未完全厘清公共数据的实质意涵,造成大量公益数据无法通过公共数据开放制度得以有效流通利用,出现“公益数据私人控制”问题。在数据财产权利义务平衡的框架下,应当科学配置私主体的数据开放义务,以化解“公益数据私人控制”造成的数据流通困局。基于私主体的社会性理论、公众受益权理论以及公益数据的公共价值分析,私主体的数据开放义务得以证立。基于数据类型化的思路,针对完全公益数据,应当通过数据强制开放义务实现其公共价值;针对非完全公益数据,则应当通过激励政策鼓励私主体积极开放自身的数据资源,扩大数据开放范围。在充分发挥数据公共价值的同时,实现私主体利益与公共利益的平衡,更好地实现全面数据开放的制度愿景。
 
关键词: 公共数据;公益数据;私人控制;数据强制开放;数据开放义务
 
 
The decoding of “private control of public interest data”: On the data opening obligation of private subjects
 
RAN Gaoran, GAO Fuping
 
(School of Law, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 200042, China)
 
Abstract: Comprehensive data openness is the institutional basis for building a data economy, but at present, the public data openness institution actively explored by local governments in China has obvious limitations. The institution designer did not fully understand the essence of public data, which resulted in the fact that a large amount of public interest data could not be effectively circulated and used through the open institution of public data, and that the problem of "private control of public interest data" emerged. Under the framework of balance of data property rights and obligations, we should scientifically allocate the data openness obligation of private subjects to resolve the data circulation dilemma caused by "private control of public interest data". It is based on the social theory of private subjects, the theory of public beneficial rights and the public value analysis of public interest data that the data openness obligation of private subjects has been proved. Based on the idea of data typification, the public value of complete public interest data should be realized through the compulsory openness of data; As for incomplete public interest data, private entities are encouraged to actively open their own data resources through incentive policies. At the same time of expanding the scope of data openness, we should strike a balance between private interests and public interests so as to give full play to the public value of data, and better realize the institutional vision of comprehensive data openness.
 
Key words: public data; public interest data; private control, mandatory data openness; data openness obligation
 
 
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