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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年07月第29卷第4期
   
本文已被:浏览238次    下载147次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2023)04-0031-10
 
马克思对亚里士多德伦理正义思想的重构
 
丁立群1,陆鹏飞1,2
 
(1.黑龙江大学哲学院,黑龙江哈尔滨,150086;
2.哈尔滨学院马克思主义学院,黑龙江哈尔滨,150086)
 
摘  要: 亚里士多德政治哲学的主题是个人和城邦共同体的善,个人与城邦共同体的和谐完善状态具有“伦理正义”的理论旨趣。与古希腊哲学崇尚至善的伦理正义不同,“市民社会正义”注重守护个体权利,从而丧失了共同体的崇高性目标。为了扭转市民社会的私利性,黑格尔诉诸伦理国家解决个体利益与公共善的矛盾,但他只是阐发了国家的形式主义。经由对黑格尔哲学的反思,马克思通过市民社会批判重构了亚里士多德的伦理正义,将伦理正义的实践主体由精英群体扩展为无产阶级,无产阶级通过社会革命颠覆雇佣劳动实现自由劳动,最终在自由人联合体的伦理共同体中实现伦理正义。马克思的正义观超越了狭隘的分配正义和法权正义,是建立在个体和共同体善的基础上的具有终极关怀的伦理正义。
 
关键词: 马克思;亚里士多德;伦理正义;个体善;共同体善
 
 
Marx’s reconstruction of Aristotle's thought of "ethics justice"
 
DING Liqun1, LU Pengfei1,2
 
(1. School of Philosophy, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150086, China;
2. School of Marxism, Harbin University, Harbin 150086, China)
 
Abstract: The theme of Aristotle's political philosophy is the good of the individual and the community, and the harmonious perfection of individual and city-state community can be called "Ethical Justice". Different from the "Ethical Justice" which advocated the highest good in ancient Greek philosophy, "Civil Social Justice" focused on protecting individual rights, thus losing the lofty goal of community. In order to reverse the self-interest of civil society, Hegel appealed to the ethical state to solve the contradiction between individual interests and public good, but he only expounded the formalism of the state. Through the reflection of Hegel's philosophy, Marx reconstructed Aristotle's "Ethical Justice" through the criticism of Civil Society, extending the subject of the practice of "Ethical Justice" from Aristotle's "Elite" group to the proletariat, the proletariat overturns wage labor through social revolution to realize free labor, and finally realizes "Ethical Justice" in the ethical community of "Free Association". Marx's concept of justice transcends narrow distributive justice and legal justice, and is "Ethical Justice" with ultimate concern based on the good of both the individual and the community.
 
Key words: Marx; Aristotle; "Ethical Justice"; the good of the individual; the good of the community
 
 
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