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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年05月第29卷第3期
   
本文已被:浏览286次    下载159次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2023)03-0165-09
 
超越国家与市民社会的分立——黑格尔与马克思两种政治哲学方案比较
 
袁立国
 
(吉林大学哲学基础理论研究中心暨哲学社会学院,吉林长春,130012)
 
摘  要: 如何超越现代性政治中市民社会与政治国家的分立,是黑格尔和马克思的共同探讨的主题。黑格尔以警察、同业公会、等级议会作为“中介”调和二者,但这样只是把市民社会的结构性矛盾转移到国家内部,形成国家对市民社会的管制,其本质上是“调和”而非“解除”矛盾。马克思则倾向于让矛盾和斗争彻底公开化,通过使作为经济领域的市民社会上升到政治性存在,一举消灭形式国家。从《黑格尔法哲学批判》到《〈黑格尔法哲学批判〉导言》,马克思通过批判黑格尔法哲学,完成了从“市民社会—官僚等级—国家”向“市民社会—无产阶级—社会”三元概念的推论。而随着市民社会和政治国家被“社会”所扬弃,其理论立场从激进民主主义转向了革命共产主义。在当代学术视域中,如果说黑格尔是在自由主义之后首次把国家治理置于现代政治的核心,那么马克思则是在对黑格尔国家学的批判中提炼出了基于现实性和人民主体性的治理原则。
 
关键词: 市民社会;政治国家;无产阶级;国家治理
 
 
Transcending the division between the state and civil society: Comparing the two different political philosophical schemes of Hegel and Marx
 
YUAN Liguo
 
(Center for Fundamentals of Philosophy & School of Philosophy and Sociology,Jilin University, Changchun 130012,China)
 
Abstract: How to transcend the division between civil society and the political state in the politics of modernity is a common problem between Hegel and Marx. Hegel's solution was to take the police, the trade association and the hierarchical parliament as "intermediaries" to reconcile the separation, but this only transferred the structural contradictions of civil society to the state and formed the state's political control over civil society, which was essentially "reconciling" rather than "overcoming" the contradictions. Marx, on the other hand, tended to make contradictions and struggles public, and eliminated state formalism in one fell swoop by elevating civil society as an economic sphere to a political existence. From The Critique at Hegel’s Philosophy of Right to Introduction, Marx completed the triadic conceptual inference from “civil society-bureaucratic hierarchy-state” to “civil society-proletariat-society”, and as civil society/political state was conceptually abandoned by "society", his theoretical position shifted from radical democracy to revolutionary communism. From the perspective of contemporary scholarship, if Hegel placed state governance at the core of modern politics for the first time after liberalism, then Marx's systematic critique of Hegel's state can extract the governance principles based on reality and people's subjectivity.
 
Key words: civil society; political state; proletariat; national governance
 
 
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