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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年03月第29卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2023)02-0200-15
 
东北亚变局视域下《俄日下田条约》的再审视
 
邢媛媛
 
(中国社会科学院大学历史学院,北京,100102)
 
摘  要: 从1697年俄日关系启幕至1855年《俄日下田条约》签订,两国早期关系历经一个半世纪的演变。1815年,两国在平息军事冲突和解决人质危机后相互默许边境划分构想,为缔约奠定了历史基础。1852年,俄日关系的相对稳定状态随着东北亚局势变动被打破,为缔约创造了现实条件。两国在谈判中以退让促成和解:俄国以土地让步争取到日本开港通商,政治利益让渡给经济利益;日本则以开港通商保全国体,经济利益让渡给政治利益。妥协性是《俄日下田条约》的突出特征,揭示了条约的实质和俄日早期关系的本质。对俄国而言,《俄日下田条约》是因殖民竞争中的力所不逮而在东方采取的权宜之计;对日本而言,则是避战止戈的近代外交尝试,是幕府逐渐放弃锁国的主动对外探索。
 
关键词: 俄国;日本;普提雅廷;川路圣谟;《俄日下田条约》
 
 
Re-examination into The Shimota Treaty between Russia and Japan under the changing context in north-eastern Asia
 
XING Yuanyuan
 
(School of History, University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100102, China)
 
Abstract: From the beginning of Russia-Japan relations in 1697 to the signing of The Shimota Treaty in 1855, the early relations between the two countries experienced evolution of a century and a half. In 1815, after quieting down the military conflicts and resolving the hostage crisis, the two countries tacitly agreed to the concept of border demarcation, which laid a historical foundation for the signing of the treaty. In 1852, the power balance between Russia and Japan was broken with the changes of the international situation, creating real conditions for the signing of the treaty. In the negotiations, the two countries made concessions to promote reconciliation: Russia won the opening of ports and trade with Japan through land concessions, and the political interests were transferred to economic interests, while Japan, on the other hand, protects the whole country by opening up Hong Kong and trade links, and transfers economic interests to political interests. Compromise is a prominent feature of the treaty, which reveals the essence of the treaty and the essence of the early relationship between Russia and Japan. For Russia, the treaty is an expedient of rights and interests in the East due to the lack of power in colonial competition, while for Japan, the treaty is a modern diplomatic attempt to avoid and stop the war. It is an active foreign exploration by the shogunate to gradually give up locking the country.
 
Key words: Russia; Japan; Puthiatin; The Shimota Treaty between Russia and Japan
 
 
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