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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年03月第29卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2023)02-0070-13
 
论侵害英雄烈士名誉、荣誉罪的保护法益
 
李冠煜,石晓南
 
(华中科技大学法学院,湖北武汉,430074)
 
摘  要: 关于侵害英雄烈士名誉、荣誉罪的保护法益,目前存在着集体法益和个人法益、单一法益与复合法益之争。英雄烈士的名誉、荣誉同时体现着个人利益和公共利益,但在刑法对其保护路径的选择上,将其定位为个人法益,不具有理论、实践上的妥当性。根据法益保护理论,法益一元说显然无法与刑法发挥风险应对、社群整合机能的要求相协调,无助于本罪法益的规范解释。法益二元说承认集体法益与个人自由发展及其基本权利实现的价值关联,但无需还原为个人法益。这一观点用于解释本罪法益更为合理。英雄烈士作为国家历史符号,对其名誉、荣誉的保护,旨在保障国家内部架构条件即公民认同感这一维系国家存立的集体性心理。它有利于强化共同体的价值凝聚力和精神向心力,是保障国家存续的必不可少的心理条件,由此可以证成其属于集体法益。根据二元说的立场,在价值面上,本罪法益与个人自由和人格发展具有关联性,具备立法的正当性;在存在面上,通过犯罪对象的确定和罪量要素的认定,可以为司法识别保护法益提供更加明显的外在标识。
 
关键词: 侵害英雄烈士名誉、荣誉罪;集体法益;国家内部架构条件;国家存立心理条件
 
 
On the protection legal interests of crime of infringing upon the reputation and honor of heroes and martyrs
 
LI Guanyu, SHI Xiaonan
 
(School of Law, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China)
 
Abstract: Of the protection legal interests of the crime of infringing the reputation and honor of heroes and martyrs, there are at present disputes between collective legal interest and individual legal interest, single legal interest and composite legal interest.The reputation and honor of a martyr embodies both personal interest and public interest. However, on the choice of its protection path in the criminal law, it is not proper in theory and practice to define it as personal legal interest. According to the theory of legal interest, the monism of legal interest obviously can't be coordinated with the requirements of the criminal law to play the role of risk response and community integration, and is not conducive to the normative interpretation of the legal interests of this crime. The dualism of legal interest, which is more reasonable in interpreting the legal interests, recognizes the value relationship between collective legal interest and the free development of individuals and the realization of their basic rights without neccesity to revert to individual legal interest. As a symbol of national history, the protection of the reputation and honor of heroes and martyrs aims to guarantee the conditions for national internal structure, namely, the sense of civic identity, which is the collective psychology that maintains the survival of the country. It is conducive to strengthening the value cohesion and spiritual centripetal force of the community, and is an essential psychological condition to ensure the existence of the country, which can prove that it belongs to the collective legal interest. According to the viewpoints of dualism, in terms of value, the legal interest of this crime is related to personal freedom and development of personality, and has the legitimacy of legislation. In the aspect of existence, By determining the object of crime and the elements of crime quantity, it can provide more obvious external identifications for the judicial identification to protection of legal interests.
 
Key words: the crime of infringing the reputation and honor of heroes and martyrs; collective legal interest; conditions for national internal structure; psychological conditions for national survival
 
 
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