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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2023年03月第29卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2023)02-0022-08
 
青年马克思的私有财产批判和市民社会转向——以《黑格尔法哲学批判》为中心
 
温权,唐莉维
 
(南京大学马克思主义学院,江苏南京,210023)
 
摘  要: 以私有财产和国家制度间的矛盾关系为问题聚焦,通过对比普鲁士国家的“政治图景”和黑格尔伦理国家的“理论形象”,马克思确证了私有财产之于黑格尔法哲学结构的关键地位。在批驳以意志为起点的抽象法哲学基础上,马克思既揭示出黑格尔法哲学在政治层面得以现实化的实践限度,又实现了以该限度为前提的市民社会转向,这在根本上关乎唯物史观立场的确立。由此可见,青年马克思在私有财产批判语境中,对作为社会历史特定阶段的市民社会的现实表征与内在局限的透视,构成他日后以政治经济学批判方法解剖市民社会,并探究人类社会历史变迁规律的理论前奏。
 
关键词: 马克思;黑格尔;法哲学;私有财产;市民社会;政治国家
 
 
Young Marx’s critique at private property and theoretical turn of the civil society: Centered on Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
 
WEN Quan, TANG Liwei
 
(School of Marxism, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China)
 
Abstract: By comparing the political situations in Prussia and the ethical state from Hegel’s theory, Marx not only confirmed the pivotal status of private property in the philosophy of right, but also revealed the latter’s realistic practical limitations at the political level on the basis of the refutations of abstract philosophy which was built on the concept of will, and meanwhile accomplished the theoretical turn of the civil society under the precondition of those limits, which was directly related to the establishment of historical materialism. Therefore, it can be seen that young Marx perceived the superficial characteristics and intrinsic limitations of civil society as a specific stage of social history in the context of private property criticism, which constituted the theoretical preface to his later anatomy of the civil society and his exploration into the laws of historical changes in human society by means of “critique of political economy”.
 
Key words: Marx; Hegel; Philosophy of Right; private property; civil society; political state
 
 
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