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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年09月第28卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)05-0041-14
 
系统论视野下行政法的“反思性”——兼论我国行政法学之调适
 
翟翌,罗实
 
(重庆大学法学院,重庆,400044)
 
摘  要: 在当前行政任务复杂化、知识分布碎片化背景下,传统行政法教义学范式与开放的法治实践、法治需求存在落差,面临“解释困境”。现代行政法运作的“开放性”映射了法与社会演进的“共振”,暗合了卢曼系统论中“反思性”运作机理,即社会各系统无法以“决定/被决定”方式单向控制,而在系统自身理性话语下“自创生”运作并相互指涉:一方面,面向行政的行政法,可观察行政作为独立系统,不完全服膺于形式上“依法律行政”,而以程序为重心,遵循自身行政理性寻求决定的“正确性”;另一方面,面向私人的行政法,可观察行政法逐渐引导私人共担公共责任,并在运作上容纳更多“非法律理性”。“反思性”现象表明,行政法开始考虑所指涉系统具体与差异化的运作逻辑,这为基于教义学范式的我国行政法学向以“知识跨界”为研究方法、以“行政正确”为法治原则、以“最适手段”为调控思路、以“关系纲要”为研究重心整饬奠定了理论指引,以适应实践变迁。
 
关键词: 系统论;反思性;公共治理;行政法
 
 
The "reflexivity" of administrative law in the perspective of systematic theory: Also on the adaptation of administrative law in China
 
ZHAI Yi, LUO Shi
 
(School of Law, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China)
 
Abstract: In the context of the complexity of administrative tasks and fragmented knowledge distribution, the traditional paradigm of administrative law doctrine falls short of the open rule of law practice and demand, and faces an "interpretative dilemma". The "openness" of the operation of modern administrative law maps the "resonance" of the evolution of law and society, which alludes to the "reflexive" mechanism of Luhmann's system theory, that is, the social systems cannot operate in a "decided/determined" manner, but its autonomy can run in the system's own rational discourse and can be referent to each other. On the one hand, administrative law oriented towards administration, can observe administrative law as an independent system, not fully subservient to the formal "administration by law", but focusing on procedures and following its own administrative rationality to seek the "correctness" of decisions. On the other hand, administrative law oriented towards the private, can observe administrative law gradually leading the private to undertaking public responsibility and to housing more illegal rationality in operation. The phenomenon of "reflexivity" shows that administrative law has begun to consider the specific and differentiated operational logic of the referent system, which provides theoretic guidance for China’s administrative jurisprudence based on the doctrinal paradigm to adapt to the changes in practice by taking "knowledge crossing disciplines" as research method, "administrative correctness" as the principle of rule of law, "the most appropriate means" as regulating idea, and "relational outline" as research focus.
 
Key words: systems theory; reflexivity; public governance; administrative law
 
 
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