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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年09月第28卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)05-0029-12
 
论我国核损害赔偿纠纷行政调解机制的构建——基于对日本立法和实践的考察
 
胡帮达
 
(华中科技大学法学院,湖北武汉,430074)
 
摘  要: 完善核损害赔偿程序机制是我国核领域立法需考虑的重要课题。核损害赔偿案件通常具有损害范围大、损害持续时间长、损害事实和因果关系复杂等特点,要求纠纷解决机制具备高效性、专业性、成本可接受性、公正性与权威性等性能。我国现行纠纷解决机制难以充分满足这些要求,建立核损害赔偿纠纷行政调解机制具有必要性和可行性。参考日本经验,我国可建立由国家核安全局主导的核损害赔偿纠纷行政调解机制。该机制应从调解机构的组织定位与职能配置、人员构成、调解程序与费用安排等方面进行设计,以保障其解决核损害赔偿纠纷的能力、效率和成本优势;应定位于可供当事人自由选择的替代性纠纷解决机制,并通过与司法机制的有效衔接来增强其调解的效力,保障当事人能够获得充分救济的机会。
 
关键词: 核损害赔偿;纠纷解决机制;行政调解;核安全;原子能法
 
 
The construction of administrative mediation mechanism for nuclear damage compensation disputes in China­: Based on the investigation of Japan’s legislation and practice
 
HU Bangda
 
(School of Law, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China)
 
Abstract: Improving nuclear damage compensation mechanism is an important issue for China’s nuclear legislation. Nuclear damage compensation cases are usually characterized by large-scale and long-term damage and complexity of damage facts and causation, which requires that the nuclear damage compensation dispute resolution mechanism should be efficient, professional, cost acceptable, fair and authoritative. China’s existing dispute resolution mechanisms may not successfully fulfill these requirements, so it is vital and feasible to establish appropriate administrative mediation mechanism. Inspired by Japanese experiences, China can build an administrative mediation mechanism for nuclear damage compensation disputes led by the National Nuclear Safety Administration. This mechanism should be well designed in terms of the organization structure and functions, personnel composition, operation procedure and expenses to guarantee its ability, efficiency and cost acceptability in dispute resolution, should be designated as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism that can be freely selected by the parties, and should enhance its own effectiveness through effective connection with the judicial mechanism to ensure that the parties can obtain adequate relief opportunities.
 
Key words: nuclear damage compensation; dispute resolution mechanism; administrative mediation; nuclear safety; atomic energy law
 
 
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