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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年09月第28卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)05-0001-10
 
朱陆王工夫论的结构差异
 
傅锡洪
 
(中山大学博雅学院,广东广州,510275)
 
摘  要: 以往程朱理学与陆王心学的划分框架遮蔽了陆王内部的差异以及朱王的共性。就工夫结构而言,朱子从本心凭借不上的观点出发,主张工夫从后天的居敬穷理切入,并沿着《大学》八条目层层推进,他主张的工夫可谓二元八层非本体工夫。象山认为本心之于工夫既具直接性也具充足性,人可以基本上完全凭借本心做工夫,后天努力则会起到负面作用,他主张的工夫可谓一元一层本体工夫。阳明高足王龙溪接近象山而异于阳明。在肯定后天努力的意义上,阳明与朱同而与陆异,他承认本心的作用,但认为后天努力通常对落实本心而言是不可或缺的,尤其在初学阶段更是如此。他倡导的工夫可谓一元两层本体工夫。朱、陆、王加上注重静坐的陈白沙等人,四者在宋明儒学史上构成四足鼎立的态势。
 
关键词: 朱子;陆九渊;王阳明;工夫结构
 
 
Structural differences of the Theory of Efforts among Zhu Zi, Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming
 
FU Xihong
 
(Boya College of Liberal Arts, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China)
 
Abstract: The previous division between Chen-Zhu Li School and Lu-Wang School may obscure the differences between Lu and Wang as well as the commonalities of Zhu and Wang. As far as the structure of efforts is concerned, Zhu Zi, starting from the viewpoint that the original mind is not available, advocates that efforts should start from the posterior work of maintaining respect and exhausting the rules, and should then advance according to the eight entries of the Great Learning. And the efforts that he advocates can be described as dualistic eight-entry non-ontological work. As for Xiangshan, the original mind is both direct and sufficient for the efforts, and one can basically do priori work by entirely relying on the original mind, while the posterior efforts may play a negative role. And the efforts that Xiangshan advocates could be called unary with one-layer ontological work. Wang Longxi, Yangming's disciple, is close to Xiangshan but different from Yangming. In the sense of affirming the role of the posterior efforts, Yangming is the same as Zhu but different from Lu. Yangming recognizes the role of the original mind, but also believes that posterior efforts are usually indispensable for the implementation of the original mind, especially at the initial stage. The efforts that he advocates can be described as unary with two-level ontological work. Therefore, the four thinkers, including Zhu Zi, Lu Jiuyuan, Wang Yangming, plus Chen Baisha who emphasizes the role of meditation, have formed a four-legged situation in the history of Song and Ming Confucianism.
 
Key words: Zhu Zi; Lu Jiuyuan; Wang Yangming; structure of the efforts
 
 
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