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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年07月第28卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)04-0191-14
 
清中后期湖南宾兴组织的发展及其历史作用——以湖广分闱为视角
 
曾桂林
 
(湖南师范大学历史文化学院,湖南长沙,410081)
 
摘  要: 雍正初年的湖广分闱,直接推动了湖南科举宾兴组织的发展。湖南宾兴事业的发展,则直接促进了湖南人才群体的兴起。由于官绅士民的倡捐慨助,清中后期湖南宾兴组织先后经历了勃兴、鼎盛两个发展阶段,各府州县创设的宾兴组织达九十余个。从发展特色看,清中后期湖南宾兴组织一是文治教化与苗疆治理并举,二是得到了湘军集团的大力支持。这些宾兴组织通过代缴士子的岁科卷资、印金,或资助其乡试、会试旅费,减轻了他们参加科举考试的经济负担,使得赴考人数逐渐增多,从而助推了清中后期“惟楚有材,于斯为盛”的局面。
 
关键词: 清代;湖广分闱;湖南宾兴组织;科举制;慈善公益
 
 
The development and historical role of Hunan Binxing organizations in the middle and late Qing Dynasty: From the perspective of the separation of Huguang provincial examination
 
ZENG Guilin
 
(School of History and Culture, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China)
 
Abstract: The sepcaration of the Huguang Provincial examination, which took place in the early years of the Yongzheng Reign, directly promoted the development of the Binxing organizations of the Imperial Examination in Hunan in the middle and late Qing Dynasty. The development of Binxing cause in Hunan is the most direct factor in promoting the rise of Hunan talent group at the same time. Due to the advocacy and donation of officials, gentry and people, Hunan Binxing organizations experienced the thriving and prosperous stages in the middle and late Qing Dynasty, and Binxing organizations created by various prefectures and counties amounted to more than 90. In terms of development characteristics, the Binxing organizations in Hunan resulted, on the one hand, from the simultaneous development of culture and education and the management of Miao areas, and, on the other, from the strong support of the Xiang Army Group. These Binxing organizations reduced the economic burden of their participation in the Imperial Examination by paying for the annual examination papers and printing money, or subsidizing their travel expenses for the provincial examination and metropolitan examination, gradually increased the number of people attending the examination, hence helping promote the situation of “Chu is a gathering place for talents, and particularly so here” in the middle and late Qing Dynasty.
 
Key words: Qing Dynasty; the separation of Huguang provincial examination; Hunan; Binxing organizations; imperial examination system; philanthropy
 
 
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