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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年07月第28卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)04-0171-10
 
王船山诗以达情论的理论特质
 
丁友芳,周群
 
(南京大学文学院,江苏南京,210046;南京大学中国思想家研究中心,江苏南京,210046)
 
摘  要: 在易代的特殊历史境遇中,明末大儒王船山提出诗以达情论,凸显出鲜明的学理、济世及诗道等方面的理论特质。学理特质方面,以情论诗是船山儒学性情论在诗学领域的运用和延伸,其诗情与其儒学性情有逻辑同构之处,亦体现了儒学在其诗论中的展开与投射。济世特质方面,其诗情关涉诗教,与世运、国运及世风人心密切相关,具有较强的价值理性色彩,他期以正诗中之情来匡正世风、影响人心,体现了他强烈的现实关怀。诗道特质方面,船山重诗情,亦是其发明诗道之悟的表达,在易代的特殊生命体验中,船山有强烈的情感诉求,且其毕生不废吟咏,在诗艺上已臻化境,故而其诗以达情论亦是其情感创伤转化为对诗学体认的呈现。诗以达情论既丰富了儒学文艺观的内涵,也折射出特殊时代对文学乃至文化发展的激发效力。
 
关键词: 王船山;诗以达情;天道观;现实关怀;诗道之悟
 
 
The theoretical characteristics of Wang Chuanshan’s theory of poetry expressing emotions
 
DING Youfang, ZHOU Qun
 
(School of Liberal arts, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China; Center for Chinese Thinker Studies, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China)
 
Abstract: In the special historical background of the country ruined, Wang Chuanshan, a Confucian master at the end of Ming, put forward the view that poetry should express emotions, which highlighted its distinct peculiarities in academic theory, the world-saving and poetic logos. As far as the peculiarity of academic theory is concerned, the ontology of the view that emotion was the essence of poetry was the application of and extension of his philosophical thought in his poetics, as his poetics and his Confucian temperament share a logical isomorphism, and also manifest expansion and injection of Confucianism in his poetry theory. As far as the peculiarity of world-saving is concerned, his love poems involve poetic teaching, and are closely associated with the rise and fall of the times, with the fate of the country and with human nature, hence holding a strong value with rational color. He wished, with his “right poetry”, to correct the manners of the times and to influence human nature, which reveals his strong realistic concern. As far as the peculiarity of poetic logos is concerned, Chuanshan emphasized emotions in poetry, which also expressed his epiphany in discovering poetic logos. In such a special life experience of the country ruined, Chuanshan had strong appeals to express feelings, persisted in writing poetry all his life, and finally attained the poetic summit. Therefore, his theory that poetry conveys emotions manifests the conversion of his emotional trauma into poetic awareness and recognition. The theory that poetry should express emotions not only enriched the connotation of Confucian views on literature and art, but also reflected the stimulating effect of special period of history on the development of literature and even culture.
 
Key words: Wang Chuanshan; emotion in poetry; philosophy of Heaven and Logos; realistic concern; epiphany of poetic logos
 
 
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