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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年05月第28卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)03-0001-09
 
康德“促进至善是人之道德义务”命题的义理基础与实践指向
 
朱毅
 
(苏州大学政治与公共管理学院,江苏苏州,215123)
 
摘  要: 康德至善论中有一个颇具争议的核心观点,即每个人都负有“促进至善”的道德义务。而为何“促进至善”是人的道德义务,他并未清晰地阐明。对此,许多批评者不仅明确质疑“促进至善”是人的道德义务,而且质疑它在康德伦理学中的实践意义。通过深入分析至善与道德法则紧密的义理关联,可以发现,康德之所以将“促进至善”设定为人的道德义务,根本原因在于至善是人的理性道德意识潜在映射的一个理想的道德世界,后者构成人的道德实践必须预设的一个背景性条件。基于此,康德认为,当至善以道德法则为基础,就能够且应当完成对纯粹意志的完整规定,而一旦至善获得规定意志的合法权利,也就存在着“促进至善”的道德义务。这项义务的特殊性在于,“促进至善”本质上是一个与“义务的后果”相关的实践命题,充分发挥着对其他义务的范导性作用,即通过“一个目的之整体的理念”,使所有道德性的义务能被系统化为一个统一整体,共同致力于理想道德世界的创建。
 
关键词: 康德;促进至善;道德义务;意志的规定根据;道德世界
 
 
The theoretical basis and practical directivity of the Kant’s proposition that “promoting the highest good is man’s moral obligation”
 
ZHU Yi
 
(School of Politics and Public Administration, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China)
 
Abstract: In his theory of the highest good, Kant proposes a controversial point that each of us has a moral obligation to "promote the highest good", without yet clarifying why promoting the highest good is man’s moral obligation. About this, many critics not only explicitly question why "promoting the highest good" is a moral obligation, but also question its practical significance in Kantian ethics. By conducting a profound analysis of the close relationship between the highest good and moral law, we can find that the reason Kant sets "promoting the highest good" as a moral obligation is that the highest good is an ideal moral world, which any moral consciousness potentially maps, with the latter constituting the presupposed condition of man’s moral practice. Therefore, Kant believes that when the highest good is based on the moral law, it can and should fulfil the complete determination of the pure will. Once the highest good obtains the legal right to determine the will, there exists the obligation of "promoting the highest good". The particularity of this moral obligation is that it is essentially a practical proposition essentially related to the "consequences of the obligation", which fully exerts a guiding role for other obligations. That is, through the "idea of the whole of an end", it makes other moral obligations systematized into a unified whole, hence collaborating to establish an ideal moral world.
 
Key words: Kant; promoting the highest good; moral obligation; the determining basis of the will; moral world
 
 
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