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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年03月第28卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)02-0181-10
 
北宋文士美学精神的雅拙二维
 
沈沫
 
(北京大学哲学系,北京,100871)
 
摘  要: 北宋时期不同艺术样态及其背后的精神与意蕴,既有复古,亦有新变。在北宋文士推动艺术发生重大转向的过程中,对雅、拙的自觉追求一直蕴含于文艺实践中,是贯穿于各类文艺创新的一种时代精神,反映出儒道哲思传统的一种美学旨归。“雅”与崇德重礼、秉诚主敬的君子修养相关,在艺术上追求与古为新、平淡典要;“拙”与文士隐逸之思、自然之乐、存养之道相关,在艺术上追求宁拙毋巧、天然为工。借由雅拙二维,不仅可达致对北宋艺术的深度理解,而且有助于把握古典美学与哲学的内在一致性。
 
关键词: 雅;拙;北宋文士;美学风尚;艺术哲学
 
 
Two dimensions of both elegance and simplicity: The aesthetic spirit of the literati in the Northern Song Dynasty
 
SHEN Mo
 
(Department of Philosophy, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
 
Abstract: Different artistic forms and their implied spirits and connotations during the Northern Song Dynasty reveal both retrospections and new changes. In the process when the literati are promoting a major artistic transition, the spontaneous pursuit for elegance with simplicity has forever been concealed in their practical creation of literal and aesthetic works, which represents the characteristic temperament of that age and reflects an aesthetically ultimate intention of the philosophical tradition of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Elegance concerns gentlemanlike cultivation of respecting morality and stressing rites, and in art, seeks novelty in classics and elegance in plainness, while simplicity involves thoughts of reclusive life, pleasures in the nature and Tao in existence of the literati, and in art, pursues simplicity rather than ornament, and takes naturalness as craft. The interpretation from the perspective of the two dimensions of elegance and simplicity is helpful not only to attain a profound understanding of the art of the Northern Song Dynasty, but also to grasp the intrinsic unity of Chinese classical aesthetics and philosophy.
 
Key words: elegance; simplicity; literati of the Northern Song Dynasty; aesthetic fashion; art philosophy
 
 
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