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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年03月第28卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)02-0046-13
 
青年马克思对现代国家的批判解构与理论探索
 
李应瑞
 
(北京大学马克思主义学院,北京,100871)
 
摘  要: 从《黑格尔法哲学批判》到《关于现代国家的著作的计划草稿》,构成了青年马克思进行现代国家批判及理论建构尝试的重要环节。立足于现实的物质利益关系特别是经济关系和阶级关系,马克思在黑格尔法哲学的批判性分析中初步明确现代国家问题研究新方向,进而开始将现代国家问题研究同政治经济学研究、人的解放命题相结合,阐明政治解放同人的解放的本质区别,初步揭示出资本主义现代国家的本质及局限性,并在市民社会的经济学分析中指出无产阶级承担着实现人类解放的历史使命,赋予了现代国家范畴全新的理论语境和科学内涵。《关于现代国家的著作的计划草稿》是马克思对1842—1844年政治批判及理论研究成果的重要总结,也是他进一步深化现代国家问题研究、建构全新现代国家理论的思想框架和主题索引,是理解马克思现代国家思想的锁钥。青年马克思进行现代国家批判的思想进程及理论要点,有着重要的理论价值和现实意义。
 
关键词: 马克思;现代国家;市民社会;政治解放;人的解放
 
 
YoungMarx’scritical deconstruction and theoretical exploration of modern state theory
 
LI Yingrui
 
(School of Marxism, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)
 
Abstract: Young Mark’s writings from Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right to Scheme Draft about Modern State’s Work constitute an important link in his criticism at and his theoretical attempt of constructing modern state. Based on the realistic material interest relations, especially the economic relations and class relations, Marx preliminarily defined the new direction of modern state research in the critical analysis of Hegel's philosophy of right, then began to combine the study of modern state problems with the study of political economics as well as the proposition of human liberation, clarified the essential difference between political liberation and human liberation, initially revealed the essence and limits of capitalist state, and pointed out that the proletariat should undertake the historical mission of realizing human liberation in the economic analysis of bourgeois society, which endowed the category of modern state with a new theoretical context and scientific connotation. His Scheme Draft about Modern State’s Work is not only Marx's important summary of political criticism and theoretical research findings from 1842 to 1844, but also his ideological framework and subject index to further deepen the research on modern state problems and construct a new modern state theory, which is the key to understanding Marx's modern state thought. The ideological process and theoretical points of young Marx's modern state criticism are of great theoretical value and practical significance.
 
Key words: Marx; modern state theory; civil society; political liberation; human liberation
 
 
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