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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2022年01月第28卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2022)01-0058-12
 
个人信息侵权因果关系的证明困境及其破解——以相当因果关系理论为进路
 
田野,张耀文
 
(天津大学法学院,天津,300072)
 
摘  要: 在个人信息侵权案件中,受害人证明因果关系面临证明能力不足和证明标准失范的困境。虽然相当因果关系说受到条件说、类推说的挑战,但无法被替代。应在坚持相当因果关系说的基础上配置证明责任,区分条件关系和相当性的证明责任,即受害人承担条件关系的证明责任,侵害人承担不存在相当性的证明责任。以具体场景确定条件关系的证明标准,在一般场景中采高度盖然性标准认定条件关系;在出现信息误用迹象、公务机关作为信息处理者、信息处理使用大数据及自动化技术、存在多个信息处理人等要素时,法院应考虑将场景认定为特殊场景,以合理盖然性标准认定条件关系,以高度盖然性标准认定相当性。
 
关键词: 个人信息侵权;证明责任分配;因果关系;合理盖然性;条件关系;相当性
 
 
The dilemma of proving the causation of personal information tort and its overcoming: Taking the adequate cause theory as the approach
 
TIAN Ye, ZHANG Yaowen
 
(School of Law, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China)
 
Abstract: In the cases of personal information tort, the victim, when proving the causation, is faced with the dilemma of insufficient proof ability and inaccurate proof standard. The theory of adequate causation is challenged by the theory of condition and analogy, but cannot be replaced. The burden of proof should be allocated on the basis of adhering to the theory of adequate causation, and the burden of proof of conditional relation and equivalence should be distinguished. That is, the victim should bear the burden of proof of conditional relation, and the infringer should bear the burden of proof without equivalence. The proof standard of the conditional relation is determined by the specific scene, and in the general scene, the conditional relation is determined by the high probability standard. When there are signs of information misuse, public authorities as information processors, using big data and automation technology in processing information, multiple processors and other elements, the court should consider identifying the specific scene as a special scene, recognizing the conditional relation with a reasonable probability standard, and determining the equivalence by the standard of high probability.
 
Key words: personal information tort; distribution of burden of proof; causation; reasonable probability standard; conditional relation; equivalence
 
 
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