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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年09月第27卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)05-0184-11
 
经筵与绘画:晋宋“摘句”“图写”的生成及演进
 
孙宝
 
(曲阜师范大学孔子文化研究院,山东济宁,273100)
 
摘  要: 随着晋宋文学及绘画的发展,官方往往通过东宫僚职、文秘史职、礼官儒职等文官的文事活动,来延续汉代以来以经学为主、绘画为辅的教化引领策略,其标志性建树体现在《南齐书·文学传论》“张眎擿句褒贬,颜延图写情兴”的叙说中。晋宋宫廷多委任文儒兼通之士承担侍讲经筵、摘句录义等职属,后者汲取儒生研经摘句之法而展开文事褒贬,这拓展了晋宋文学批评的新走向。颜延之屡次出任儒礼之官,在蔡邕、曹植、顾恺之等人画赞的基础上,依据多种绘画题材进行创作,从而树立起刘宋文画融合的标杆。在南朝东宫、藩府及宫廷画师主导下,图写又成为官方掌控文衡、论能铨授的重要方式。迄至隋唐,摘句与图写逐渐摆脱儒官主导、官方评价的模式,而步入文人自主创作的时代。
 
关键词: 诗画教化;颜延之;摘句;图写;经筵;绘画
 
 
Classics lecturing and painting: Generation and evolution of selecting lines and writing with paintings during Jin and Song of Southern Dynasty
 
SUN Bao
 
(Confucius Cultural Institute, Qufu Normal University, JiNing273100, China)
 
Abstract: With the development of literature and painting during Jin and Song, the Confucian officials at that time tended, through such literary activities for selecting civil service officials in the eastern court, the secretary and history positions as well as protocol officials and the Confucian duty, to continue the education-leading strategy with studying classics as the center and painting as the auxiliary role, a strategy followed since Han Dynasty. And its iconic achievement is manifested in the narrative in Nan Qi Shu (History of the Southern Qi) · Biographies of Literary Men that Zhang Shi expressed his likes and dislikes by selecting lines while Yan Yanzhi uttered his feelings and sentiments with paintings. The court of Jin and Song was more likely to assign those proficient in both literature and Confucianism to occupy the positions of lecturing classics and selecting lines. The latter would follow the Confucian practice of studying classics and scriptures in selecting lines and undertaking literary activities with preferences. This extended the new tendency of literary criticism of Jin and Song. Yan Yanzhi served in Confucian posts many times and on the basis of painting skills of Cai Yong, Cao Zhi and Gu Kaizhi, composed according to many themes from painting, hence establishing his landmark with writing and painting being integrated. Thus, led by painting masters of the eastern court, the local capital of each province and the court of Southern Dynasty, writing with paintings (Tuxie) became an important way for the government to control the literati, to assess the ability and to select officials. Up to Sui and Tang, selecting lines and writing with paintings gradually got rid of the pattern that Confucian officials took the lead while the officials undertook the assessment, and stepped into an era when the literati could be autonomous in creation.
 
Key words: poetry-painting integrated education and enlightenment; Yan Yanzhi; selecting lines; writing with paintings (Tuxie); classics lecturing; painting
 
 
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