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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年09月第27卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)05-0144-11
 
孟德斯鸠论共和政体
 
罗轶轩
 
(兰州大学政治与国际关系学院,甘肃兰州,730000)
 
摘  要: 共和主义思潮在17—18世纪的欧洲影响甚广,所以孟德斯鸠把共和政体纳入其政体考察的范围,评测它是否是宽和政体的恰当形态。然而无论是在政体性质上,还是在政体原则上,共和政体都不符合宽和政体的核心特征:由于绝对主权机制的特殊性,它难以建立稳定的权力制衡机制,因此必须强迫人民始终恪守德性,而且以自我舍弃为核心的德性在根本上背离了政治的终极目的。此外,在现实中,共和政体很容易衰败崩溃,一方面是因为它的性质与原则之间存在结构性冲突,另一方面是因为无论是对外敌恐惧的需要,还是德性教育本身的成功,又或者共和国的生存要求,都使它具有强烈的战争倾向。最后,在现代民族国家与商业社会中,共和政体完全不合时宜。
 
关键词: 孟德斯鸠;共和政体;人民主权;德性;宽和政体
 
 
Montesquieu on the republican government
 
LUO Yixuan
 
(School of Politics and International Relations, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China)
 
Abstract: Due to the widespread influence of republicanism in Europe of the 17th-18th centuries, Montesquieu included the republican government in his complete analysis of the various governments to assess whether it was a proper form of moderate government. Nevertheless, whether in terms of the nature of the government or the principle of the government, the republican government does not conform to the core features of moderate government. Due to the particularity of absolute sovereignty, it is difficult for the republic to establish a stable mechanism of power control and balance. Therefore, the republic must force the people to always adhere to the virtue. In addition, the virtue, of which self-renunciation is the main content, is fundamentally deviated from the ultimate goal of politics. Moreover, in reality, the republic is easy to decay and collapse because, on the one hand, there is a structural conflict between its nature and principle, and on the other hand, whether out of the need because of the fear of foreign enemies or out of the need for the successful existence of virtue education, or the survival requirements of the republic, all renders it a strong war propensity. Finally, the republican government is completely anachronistic in the modern nation-state and commercial society.
 
Key words: Montesquieu; the republican government; popular sovereignty; the virtue; moderate government
 
 
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