自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
自然科学版 英文版
 

中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年09月第27卷第5期
   
本文已被:浏览662次    下载318次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2021)05-0079-13
 
美国土地管理中的分区制:源流、争论与价值
 
陈婉玲,杨柳
 
(华东政法大学科学研究院,上海,201620;华东政法大学经济法学院,上海,200333)
 
摘  要: 美国分区制是“自下而上”产生的,其由联邦分区示范法案与各州地方政府的具体分区法案所构成,包含了分区规划的技术标准、分区机构的组织权力和分区进程的程序设计等内容,几乎适用于美国所有的城市。美国分区制的立法权来源于各州的警察权,体现了排除生活妨害、维护土地价值、优化公共服务的社会利益本位的理念与价值。对分区制引发的个人利益与社会利益冲突争论,法院持保守态度,遵循“合法性推定原则”,并不因特定当事人的个人利益对分区制的发展进行过多的干扰。分区制肯定的社会利益并非社会所有个人利益的简单相加,而是体现在其作为利益协调工具,能够增进每个人追求自己目的的机会条件,在这一维度中个人利益与社会利益是统一的。这是美国分区制能够长盛不衰的原因,也是我国主体功能区等国土空间规划制度需要借鉴的。
 
关键词: 美国分区制;警察权;利益冲突;社会利益
 
 
Zoning in U.S. land management: Sources, disputes, and values
 
CHEN Wanling, YANG Liu
 
(Institute of Social Sciences, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201620, China;
School of Economical Law, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 200333, China)
 
Abstract: The U.S. zoning is a "bottom-up" system, consisting of a model federal zoning act and specific zoning acts by local governments in each state, which includes technical standards for zoning, organizational powers of zoning agencies, and procedural design of the zoning process, and is now applicable to almost all cities in the United States. The legislative power of the U.S. zoning is derived from the police power of the states, and the legislation reflects the concept and value of the social interest orientation of excluding nuisances to life, preserving land values, and optimizing public services. The courts takes a conservative approach to the conflicts between personal and social interests arising from zoning, following the principle of "presumption of legality," and does not interfere too much in the development of zoning. The social interests affirmed by the zoning system are not the simple addition of all individual interests in the society, but are reflected in its ability to enhance the conditions of opportunity for each individual to pursue his or her own purposes as a tool for interest coordination, and in this dimension individual interests and social interests are unified. This is the very reason for the longevity of the zoning system in the U.S, and is also what China's main functional areas and other territorial spatial planning systems need to learn from.
 
Key words: zoning system in the U.S.; police power; conflicts of interests; social interests
 
 
版权所有:《中南大学学报(社会科学版)》编辑部 
地 址:湖南省长沙市岳麓区麓山南路932号     邮编: 410083
电 话: 0731-88830141
电子邮箱: znsk@csu.edu.cn 湘ICP备09001153号-4