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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年09月第27卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)05-0065-14
 
欧洲人权法院“活的文件”判例法的发展、性质及出路
 
毛俊响,郭敏
 
(中南大学法学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 近年来,欧洲人权法院针对《欧洲人权公约》的解释问题发展出了“活的文件”判例法。借助其他国际法渊源、缔约国立法和司法实践发展形成的最新共识,欧洲人权法院对《公约》条款作出演化解释,拓展相关权利的内涵,推动《公约》某些概念的含义与时俱进。但是,欧洲人权法院在没有得到《公约》授权或缔约国认可的情况下,在部分判决中施加新的缔约国义务或增加新的权利限制理由,实际上是为《公约》创设新规则的司法造法活动,超出了《公约》赋予法院的职权范围。以“活的文件”为名的司法造法活动并不是条约演化解释,也欠缺合法性和合理性。即便是针对《公约》条款作演化解释,也应该是基于缔约国嗣后在相关领域形成的观念或实践共识。因此,欧洲人权法院只有从“活的文件”判例法中抽象出演化解释的适用条件,包括适用前提、适用依据、适用范围和限制条件,才能使“活的文件”判例法具有持久的生命力。
 
关键词: 欧洲人权法院;《欧洲人权公约》;“活的文件”;条约演化解释;司法造法
 
 
The "living instrument" case law of the European Court of Human Rights: Development, nature and outlet
 
MAO Junxiang, GUO Min
 
(School of Law, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: In recent years, the European Court of Human Rights has developed "a living instrument" case law for the interpretation of European Convention on Human Rights. With assistance of other international law sources and the latest consensus developed by contracting states’ legislation and judicial practice, the European Court of Human Rights makes evolutionary explanation of the clauses in the Convention, expands the connotations of related rights and promotes the advancement with the time of implications of some concepts in the Convention. In practice, however, the European Court of Human Rights has imposed new obligations of the contracting states or added new grounds for limitation of rights without the authorization of the Convention or the endorsement of contracting states. This is in effect a judicial law-making by which the Court could create new rules for the Convention. The European Court of Human Rights should be careful in developing "a living instrument" case law. The judicial law-making activities in the name of "a living instrument" are not the evolutionary interpretation of treaties, hence lacking legitimacy and rationality. Even an evolutionary interpretation of the provisions of the Convention should be based on a subsequent conceptual or practical consensus among the contracting states in the relevant field. Therefore, only when the European Court of Human Rights abstracts out applicable terms for evolutionary interpretation, including applicable premises, conditions, scopes and terms, can the living instrument case law have lasting vitality.
 
Key words: the European Court of Human Rights; European Convention on Human Rights; living instrument; evolutionary interpretation of treaty; judicial law-making
 
 
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