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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年03月第27卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)02-0019-12
 
明末清初以释老入制义的观念与创作的流变
 
陈麒如
 
(复旦大学中国语言文学系,上海,200433)
 
摘  要: 自嘉靖初年始,在心学思想的牵引与重新异、重机法的创作观影响下,释、道思想逐渐孱入时文,并在隆庆、万历年间形成一股风潮。与此同时,对佛、道二氏的滥引也造成了浮浅空疏的文风,天启、崇祯年间的八股文改革运动大力排抑佛老,并一度将释、道之书从古文文脉剔出。但是到了清代初年,学界提倡“经世达务”的学术风气,朝廷选官取士亦向“明体达用”标准倾斜,学者们开始对诸子学说进行多方面诠释,“以学问为时文”的观念逐渐形成。其结果是这一时期的时文家在创作和点评制义之时开始重新取法诸子思想,庄子学说再度被纳入古文体系。
 
关键词: 释老入制义;庄子;佛家;以古文为时文;以学问为时文
 
 
Reorientation of quotation of Chuang Tsu and Buddhism in stereotyped writing during late Ming to early Qing Dynasty
 
CHEN Qiru
 
(Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China)
 
Abstract: Since the early Jiajing years, under the guidance of Wang Yangming philosophy and the creation view of emphasizing novelty and skills, Buddhism and Taoism had started to infiltrate into the stereotyped writing and became a trend in Longqing and Wanli period. At the same time, the over-quoting of Taoism and Buddhism resulted in shallow and hollow rhetoric writing style, so much so that the literary reform against this style arose in Tianqi and Chongzhen periods, which for a time removed Buddhism and Taoism from Chinese traditional literature. However, in early Qing dynasty, the academic circle advocated statecraft and pragmatic academic attitude, and the court preferred the standard of selecting officials by their practical use to the kingdom. Scholars attempted to interpret pre-Qin philosophy in various ways, which caused a common practice of creating learning stereotyped writing. As a result, writers at that time stared again quoting from Buddhism and Taoism in their creations and reviews. Chuang Tsu philosophy was re-accepted in ancient Chinese system.
 
Key words: Chuang Tsu and Buddhism in stereotyped writing; Chuang Tsu; Buddhism; classics stereotyped writing; learning stereotyped writing
 
 
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