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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年01月第27卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)01-0053-12
 
环境罚金刑“修复性易科执行制度”的创设探索
 
唐绍均,黄东
 
(重庆大学法学院,重庆,400044)
 
摘  要: 为避免环境罚金刑陷入“执行难”和“重惩罚、轻修复”的困境,在罚金刑不能被执行或者不宜被执行时,司法机关对罪犯依法改科补种复绿、增殖放流、护林护鸟、巡江巡河等非刑罚生态环境修复措施以替代原罚金刑。恢复性正义、宽恕理论以及刑法生态化均可为环境罚金刑“修复性易科执行制度”的创设提供理论支撑。生态环境修复方案拟定主体及验收主体不明、生态环境修复措施的实施主体被不当扩展、执行失信的担保失当、执行结案的方式不当等问题,成为甘肃、福建、贵州等地有关环境罚金刑修复性易科执行实践所面临的司法探索难题。建议通过由法院委托第三方专业机构参与生态环境修复方案拟定与验收、将生态环境修复措施的实施主体限定为罪犯、取消担保并设置“反向易科”为执行失信惩处方式、明确易科执行结案的方式等对环境罚金刑“修复性易科执行制度”加以立法创设,以期实现该制度的建构与善用。
 
关键词: 环境罚金刑;恢复性正义;易科执行;修复性易科执行制度;生态环境修复措施
 
 
Theoretical interpretation and legislation construction on the institution of restorative alternative sentence of environmental penalty
 
TANG Shaojun, HUANG Dong
 
(School of Law, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China)
 
Abstract: If environmental penalty cannot or is not suitable to be executed, criminals can alternatively be re-sentenced, in accordance with the law, to fish-farming, tree-planting, bird-breeding, river-protecting, and some other ecological environmental restorative measures which are non-penalization punishments. The theory of restorative justice, the theory of forgiveness and the ecologicalization of criminal law can provide theoretical support for the construction of the institution of restorative alternative sentence of environmental penalty. During the trials in Gansu, Fujian, Guizhou and some other provinces, there are some problems that need to be solved, such as uncertainty of offices making restorative plans and carrying out acceptance check, incorrect wideness of performers taking ecological environmental restorative measures, inappropriate assurance and improper way to end execution. In order to realize the construction and rational utilization of the institution of restorative alternative sentence of environmental penalty, suggestions are proposed. Firstly, third-party professional organizations should be authorized by the court to make restorative plans and carry out acceptance check. Secondly, performing entity which takes ecological environmental restorative measures should be specified as criminals. Thirdly, guarantee should be canceled and re-sentence should be set to prison for non-performance so as to clear the way to end execution, in the hope of realizing the construction and good use of the institution.
 
Key words: environmental penalty; restorative justice; alternative sentence; the institution of restorative alternative sentence; ecological environmental restorative measures
 
 
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