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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2021年01月第27卷第1期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2021)01-0018-08
 
破解“李约瑟难题”的实践哲学进路——以普遍性与特殊性的关系为线索
 
王时中
 
(南开大学哲学院,天津,300350)
 
摘  要: 李约瑟援引化学上的“滴定”方法,将“现代科学”作为普遍性标准来测度中国传统科学技术的演进与得失。但这种“滴定”的方法引起了广泛的质疑。陈方正将“现代科学”视为西方文化传统之内在革命的结果,消解了李约瑟作为“滴定”标准的“现代科学”之普遍性假象,却导致了对“滴定”之“再滴定”的无穷后退。两者的分歧集中在普遍性与特殊性之间关系的理解上:李约瑟混淆了“滴定的手段”与“滴定的对象”,消解了“滴定”标准的普遍性,使得其“滴定”效果深受质疑;陈方正将异于中国文化传统的西方科学传统当作科学的普遍性形式,实际上也犯了他所批评的李约瑟之混淆普遍性与特殊性的错误。如果基于马克思实践哲学的立场,区分普遍性与特殊性之间的三重关系,并以之作为破解“李约瑟难题”的可能方案,则不仅可以回应李约瑟“滴定”中西文明的方法论疑难,而且还可能在一个新的立场终结中西文明对话中的诸多外在纷争。
 
关键词: 李约瑟难题;现代科学;滴定;实践哲学;普遍性;特殊性
 
 
The practical way to solve the Joseph Needham's Baffling Problem: A clue of the relationship between the universality and particularity
 
WANG Shizhong
 
(Faculty of Philosophy, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China)
 
Abstract: Joseph Needham cited the method of Titration which was used chemically to measure the evolution, the gain and the loss of Chinese history of science and technology, but the method was called into question extensively. Chen Fangzheng took the modern science as the result of the internal revolutionary of Western culture which cleared the universal false appearance of the modern science but resulted in the infinite retreat. The disparity between Joseph Needham and Chen Fangzheng was focused on the relationship between the universality and the particularity. Needham confused titration method and object, and dissolved the universality of titration criteria, which rendered titration effect in question, while Fangzhen considered western scientific tradition different from Chinese culture tradition as the universal form of science, which actually repeated Needham's mistake of confusing the universality and the particularity. If we are based on the standpoint of Marxist practical philosophy and take triple distinction of the relationship as the possible way to resolve the Joseph Needham's Baffling Problem, we can not only respond to and get away from the dilemma of Joseph Needham's titration, but also end the long-standing deputation of the relationship between Chinese and Western cultures.
 
Key words: Joseph Needham's Baffling Problem; modern science; titration; practical philosophy; universality; particularity
 
 
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