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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年09月第26卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)05-0190-09
 
脑-机接口对个人自主的挑战与哲学反思
 
郭华,田雯,刘星
 
(中南大学湘雅医院,湖南长沙,410008)
 
摘  要: 个人自主一直是生命医学伦理原则中的核心概念,是个人自由和理性的表达,它在受到多种因素的综合作用后增强或降低,表现为从完全自主到完全不自主的自主连续谱系。人与世界的关系塑造着他们的自主性,而这种关系也常常被技术所塑造,技术也可以调节人的自主性。脑-机接口技术原本致力于诊治神经疾病患者,提高其自主行为能力,但当其触及微观的意识层面并表现出极高的功效时,传统自主概念受到了巨大挑战,人与技术的关系发生了改变。通过论证脑-机接口技术对个人自主的挑战,包括自主的本质和条件、自主行为能力受损以及代理决策与最佳利益评估等,并对其进行哲学反思。脑-机接口不仅塑造了用户与其身体的关系,也挑战了人们对治疗与增强、自由意志和道德责任的传统观念。
 
关键词: 脑-机接口;个人自主;伦理挑战;哲学反思
 
 
Challenges and philosophical reflections of brain-computer interface technology to individual autonomy
 
GUO Hua, TIAN Wen, LIU Xing
 
(Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China)
 
Abstract: Individual autonomy, always a core concept in ethical principles of life medicine, is an expression of personal freedom and rationality. Enhanced or reduced by the combined actions of various factors, it is manifested as a continuum of autonomy from complete autonomy to complete non-autonomy. The relationship between people and the world shapes their autonomy, and this relationship is often shaped by technology, so technology also mediates people's autonomy. Brain-computer interface technology was originally intended to diagnose and treat patients with neurological diseases and improve their autonomous behavior. However, when it touched the micro level of consciousness and showed high efficacy, the traditional concept of autonomy was greatly challenged, and the relationship between human and technology changed. This paper demonstrates the challenges of the brain-computer interface technology to every aspect of the individual autonomy, including the nature and conditions of the autonomy, the impaired autonomous behavior ability and evaluation of agency decisions with the best interests. Finally, the paper offers a philosophical reflection on this challenge, according to which, brain-computer interface not only shapes the relationship between users and their bodies, but also challenges people to the treatment and enhancement, the traditional concept of free will and moral responsibility.
 
Key words: brain-machine interface; individual autonomy; ethical challenge;philosophical reflection
 
 
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