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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2020年09月第26卷第5期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2020)05-0012-12
 
本性重建如何可能?——从康德对路德宗恩典概念的批评谈起
 
谢文郁
 
(山东大学犹太教与跨宗教研究中心/哲学与社会发展学院,山东济南,250100)
 
摘  要: 康德关于根本恶和心灵改变的论述是他的宗教哲学的核心。康德在两个层次上使用“自由运作”来呈现根本恶的产生机制,以及心灵改变的可能进程。康德关于心灵改变或本性重建的说法可称为“革命-改良途径”。在此基础上,康德进而批评基督教的恩典概念,认为它在理论上无法说明,在实践上自相矛盾。然而,由于康德对路德宗的恩典概念缺乏深入体会,无视路德恩典概念中的信心之认识论功能,导致康德的批评缺乏力度。在路德那里,信心作为一种接受性的情感是具有认识论功能的,即恩典通过信心进入并改变人心。这种“信心-恩典思路”也呈现了一种人心之内在改变机制。“革命-改良思路”和“信心-恩典思路”是两种不同的本性重建思路。然而,无论在哪个思路中,在生存中进入本性重建之实际进程才是问题的关键所在。
 
关键词: 根本恶;原罪;恩典;自由;信心
 
 
How can it be possible to reconstruct nature? Based on Kant's criticism at Lutheran concept of grace
 
XIE Wenyu
 
(Research Center for Judaic and Inter-religious Studies, School of Philosophy and Social Development, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China)
 
Abstract: Kant's statements about radical evil and transformation of the heart may be the core of his philosophy of religion. Kant employs "operation of freedom" at two levels to manifest the production mechanism of radical evil and possible procession of reconstructing the heart. Kant's observation of the reconstruction of heart or nature may be branded as "the revolution-improvement way". On this basis, Kant further criticizes Lutheran concept of grace, claiming that it "cannot be adopted into the maxims of reason", and that "a practical application of this idea is wholly self-contradictory." However, as Kant lacks profound understanding of Lutheran concept of grace, and completely ignores the epistemological function of faith in Lutheran theology, this leads to the lack of strength of Kant's criticism. In Luther's thought, faith, as a receptive emotion, has epistemological function. That is, grace, through trust, enters and changes human heart structurally. Such faith-grace thinking also manifests an inner restructuring mechanism. The revolution-improvement way and faith-grace thinking can be seen as two different ways of reconstructing human heart or nature. But whichever it is, the actual procession of entering the nature and restructuring it exactly is where the problem lies.
 
Key words: radical evil; Original Sin; grace; freedom; faith
 
 
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