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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年11月第25卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)06-0162-12
 
非政府组织与冷战前期美国对外心理战研究(1947—1969)
 
史澎海
 
(长安大学外国语学院,陕西西安,710064)
 
摘  要: 二战结束后,美苏两国因诸多因素逐步走向对抗,继而演化为一场全面冷战。为了赢得冷战斗争的主动并最终取得胜利,美苏双方在各个领域展开了争夺,意识形态领域逐步成为美苏冷战斗争的主战场,心理战是美苏斗争的一种主要形式。为此,美国政府制定了遏制大战略,心理战略成为大战略体系中的一个重要子战略。在开展对外心理战行动中,美国非政府组织在与政府直接或间接合作的基础上对目标国家和地区开展了形式多样的心理战行动,有效地助推了美国政府对外心理战略目标的实现,为美国扭转冷战斗争中的被动局面并最终赢得冷战胜利发挥了不可或缺的作用。在历史唯物主义的指导下,运用历史分析法对冷战前期非政府组织在对外心理战行动中与美国政府的合作进行宏观探讨和个案分析,能够使我们更加全面地了解美国非政府组织参与对外心理战行动的实质以及得失。
 
关键词: 冷战;美国政府;非政府组织;合作;心理战行动
 
 
On the US non-governmental organizations’ psychological warfare during the early Cold War years (1947—1969)
 
SHI Penghai
 
(School of Foreign Studies, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China)
 
Abstract: After the WWII, the US and the USSR gradually went toward confrontation because of varied factors, and the confrontation finally escalated to the Cold War. In order to win the initiative and finally the Cold War, the US and the USSR commenced to struggle against each other in almost every sphere, in which the ideological sphere became the principal sphere for the two countries, and psychological warfare was the major way of the Cold War. Thus, the US government formulated the grand strategy of containment, in which psychological warfare strategy became an important branch strategy. In the course of implementation of the psychological warfare operations, the non-governmental organizations, on the basis of direct and indirect cooperation, launched varied psychological warfare operations on the target countries and areas with the US government, and helped to implement the target of the national psychological warfare strategy, thus turned the US disadvantageous scale, and made indispensable contribution to the US final winning of the Cold War. Under the guidance of the historic dialectical materialism, the macroscopic exploration and case study of the cooperation of the US non-governmental organizations with the US government by the implication of the methodology of historic analysis enables us to fully understand the essence of this cooperation as well as its gains and losses.
 
Key words: the Cold War; the US government; the non-governmental organizations; cooperation; psychological warfare operations
 
 
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