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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年07月第25卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)04-0041-10
 
析《美墨加协定》之ISDS机制的改革——以东道国规制权为视角
 
张庆麟,钟俐
 
(上海对外经贸大学法学院,上海,201620;武汉大学法学院,湖北武汉,430072)
 
摘  要: 2018年11月30日,美国、加拿大、墨西哥三国首脑在G20峰会上签署此前达成的《美墨加协定》以替代《北美自由贸易协定》(NAFTA)。新的协定对投资章节作出了修改,包括对NAFTA项下ISDS机制的改革。各国从本国规制权的利益考量出发,针对三国相互之间的投资争端解决方式,采取了à la carte 方式,以两种截然不同的路径对东道国规制权这一问题作出回应:其一是用东道国当地救济替代传统的ISDS机制;其二是对传统的ISDS机制进行改革以适应维护规制权的需要。这种立法技术上的创新使得《美墨加协定》能够有效地兼顾各方需求,因时度势,而并不是一味牺牲东道国规制权以换取对投资者利益不受限的保护。
 
关键词: 《美墨加协定》;ISDS机制;东道国规制权
 
 
Analysis of reform of the ISDS mechanism in USMCA: From the perspective of host states' regulating rights
 
ZHANG Qinglin, ZHONG Li
 
(School of Law, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, Shanghai 201620, China; School of Law, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)
 
Abstract: On November 11, 2018, the heads of the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) at the G20 Summit to replace NAFTA, which has modified the investment chapter of NAFTA, including the reform of ISDS mechanism. The United States and Canada have always recognized that traditional ISDS mechanism hinders the host country's regulatory power, so they proposed to delete it. Mexico, on the contrary, wants to keep it because it attracts foreign investment. Each country,starting the speculation of its own regulatory rights and aiming at the method of resolving investment disputes of the three states, chose the à-la-carte approach and responded to the issue of host states’ regulatory power by taking two totally distinct paths:one is to replace the traditional ISDS mechanism with local remedies, while the other insists on reforming traditional ISDS mechanism so as to adjust to the need for maintaining regulating rights. Such technical innovation in legislation allows USMCA to effectively balance the needs of all parties and to weigh over both changed time and conditions rather than exchange for unlimited protection for investors' benefits at the cost of regulatory rights of the host-states.
 
Key words: USMCA; ISDS mechanism; right to regulate of host states
 
 
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