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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年07月第25卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)04-0026-08
 
康德宗教哲学中道德自律与恩典的一致性
 
韦政希
 
(武汉大学哲学学院,湖北武汉,430072)
 
摘  要: 在康德宗教哲学中,当人们面对根本恶时,是主动进行道德自律以改恶向善,还是被动等待上帝的恩典的协助,这是一个问题。目前学界为了说明恩典与道德自律的关系,主要从理性宗教视角将恩典理解为一个实践理性的悬设而将之概念化,但一个概念化的恩典是无法给予人们去除根本恶的力量的。实际上,道德自律和恩典分别是康德从理性宗教和启示宗教的视角来审查同一件事的结果。启示宗教中的恩典虽然无法被人们所认识,但它还是作为人改恶向善的本体论前提起作用;理性宗教中的道德自律则是人们获得恩典的实践论前提。康德对其宗教哲学中二律背反的解决其实就已经间接解决了道德自律与恩典的矛盾问题。研究者没有看到两者的内在统一性,是因为他们只从理性宗教与人的主动性视角来理解两者的关系,却没有注意到,在启示宗教中,人作为受造的属灵的人,首先具有接受恩典的被动的精神,然后才有去进行道德自律的主动的自由意志。
 
关键词: 根本恶;道德自律;恩典;理性宗教;启示宗教;主动性;被动性
 
 
Consistency of moral self-discipline and grace in Kant's religious philosophy
 
WEI Zhengxi
 
(School of Philosophy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)
 
Abstract: In Kant's religious philosophy, it is a question whether we, when faced with the essential evil, should take the initiative to conduct moral self-discipline to change evil to good or to passively wait for God's grace. At present, scholars in academia, in order to explain the relationship between grace and moral self-discipline, mainly take grace as a postulate of religious reason and concept, hence abstracting it. However, conceptualized grace cannot give people power to eradicate the essential evil. In fact, moral self-discipline and grace are both results that Kant deduce respectively from rational religion and revealed religion in investigating the same thing. Grace in revealed religion, though unknowable to human beings, provides the ontological premise for one to remove the evil and follow the good, while moral self-discipline in rational religion is the practical premise to obtain grace. Kant’s solution to the antinomy of religious philosophy has essentially resolved the contradiction between moral self-discipline and grace. The reason why researchers have failed to comprehend this inner unity is that they just understand the relationship between the two from the active perspective of rational religion and human beings without noticing that a person, as a created living being, is first endowed with the passive spirit to receive grace before acquiring the active free will to conduct moral self-discipline.
 
Key words: essential evil; moral self-discipline, grace; rational religion, revealed religion; activity, passivity
 
 
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