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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2019年07月第25卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2019)04-0019-07
 
论康德哲学中审美与幸福的关系
 
张齐
 
(浙江大学人文学院,浙江杭州,310028)
 
摘  要: 康德既未向幸福主义伦理学让步,也未将美与幸福等同。在康德哲学中,既有基于感性欲求得到满足而产生的“自然幸福”,也有基于道德完善而产生的“道德幸福”,更有基于至善格局(德福配称)而产生的“永福”。诸种幸福的来源、性质并不相同。在他的美学中,不纯粹的鉴赏判断混杂着自然幸福,纯粹鉴赏判断以不沾染利害的方式超越了自然幸福,崇高判断则以抵抗而穿透利害的方式超越了自然幸福。康德没有成功论证审美通向道德的中介作用,无法说明审美有助于人的“道德幸福”,但他充分论证了人只有在“人格美”中才能成为“美的理想”,人因道德上的不断完善才有此可能,亦由此完善而有可能感到“道德幸福”,进而有资格配称“至善”格局下的“永福”。
 
关键词: 美;崇高;幸福;道德;至善
 
 
On the relationship between aesthetics and happiness in Kant’s philosophy
 
ZHANG Qi
 
(School of Humanities, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China)
 
Abstract: Kant neither gave in to the eudaemonism, nor equated beauty with happiness. In Kant's philosophy, there are at least three different kinds of happiness: the "natural happiness" based on the satisfaction of sensual desires; the "moral happiness" based on the perfection of morality; the "eternal happiness" based on the supreme good, which means the coherence of morality and natural happiness. The sources and properties of these kinds of happiness are different from each other. In his aesthetics, the impure appreciation and judgment is often mixed with natural happiness, the pure appreciation and judgment exceeds natural happiness by being totally non-contaminated by any interests; and the sublime judgment also exceeds natural happiness by resisting and piercing interests. Kant did not succeed in confirming the intermediary function of aesthetics, hence failing to illustrate that aesthetics helps one's moral happiness. But he fully proved that only in the beauty of personality can one attain the ideal of beauty, that only in the constant perfection of morality can this be possible, and that only in such perfection is one possible to attain moral happiness and further qualified for eternal happiness in the pattern of supreme good.
 
Key words: beauty; sublime; happiness; morality; supreme good
 
 
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