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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2018年09月第24卷第5期
   
本文已被:浏览1600次    下载723次   
文章编号:1672-3104(2018)05-0033-07
 
从“合多为一”到“化多为一”——先秦儒家“大一统”的逻辑进程
 
路高学
 
(东南大学人文学院,江苏南京,211189)
 
摘  要: 先秦儒家“大一统”思想的核心是以“一”为代表的王道秩序,经历了从“合多为一”到“化多为一”的演变。孔子面对春秋时期王室衰微和诸侯争霸的形势,希望通过重建西周礼乐文明以匡正天下秩序,是“合多为一”。但到了战国时期,经孟子天下“定于一”和荀子“一天下”的诠释,儒家在政治秩序方面对于“一”的认知,已经由“合多为一”转变为“化多为一”。而《公羊传》的“大一统”虽然在表现形式上给人一种“合多为一”的感觉,但其实质内核却是“化多为一”,强调作为“一”的王道秩序。这是在汉初郡县制逐步取代封建制的情况下,以“公羊学”为代表的儒学能够走向兴盛的重要原因。
 
关键词: 孔子;孟子;荀子;《公羊传》;大一统
 
 
From “combining many into One” to “merging many into One”: Logic progression of pre-Qin Confucian Great Unification
 
LU Gaoxue
 
(School of Humanities, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China)
 
Abstract: The core of pre-Qin Confucian Great Unification is kingship order, represented by “Yi” (One), which has experienced the evolution from “combining many into One” to “merging many into One.” Faced with the decline of imperial power and the struggle for supremacy between numerous states during the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucius hoped to correct the order of the world by rebuilding the etiquette and music civilization in West Zhou Dynasty, which indicates “combining many into One”. But by the period of the Warring States, in terms of political order, the Confucian cognition of “Yi” had changed from “combining many into One” to “merging many into One” after Mencius’ “setting the world in One” and Xuncius’ “Oneness under the sky”. But, the Great Unification in Gong Yang Zhuan essentially indicates “merging many into One” which emphasizes the kingship order as “Yi”, although revealing a feeling of “combining many into One” in the form of expression. This is an important reason why the study of Gong Yang, which is a representative of Confucianism, could flourish in the background where the feudal system was gradually replaced by the system of prefectures and counties in the early Han Dynasty.
 
Key words: Confucius; Mencius; Xuncius; GongYang Zhuan; Great Unification
 
 
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